A healthy person makes from 12 to 20 inhales per minute. It is so much that the cells and tissues of the body are necessary to saturate the optimal oxygen dose required for normal vital activity. When oxygen is not enough, a person begins to experience discomfort during breathing. Dyspnea is not the only outcome that can occur during respiratory failure. That is why it is very important to always control the level of oxygen in the blood.
One of the most serious causes of respiratory failure became coronavirus. He attacks the respiratory system with a sophisticated way: the organs lack oxygen, but the human body is not able to determine it. The disease can proceed asymptomatic, without shortness of breath, cough and temperature.
When the body begins to feed the signals that the lungs are amazed by cowid pneumonia, the consequences can be disastrous. To avoid such an outcome, it is necessary to control the level of blood saturation with oxygen. It is he who shows how easy accessories work and whether they need additional support.
What is oxygen saturation?
Saturation is a blood saturation with oxygen. It is measured in percentage ratio and is considered one of the main indicators, according to which the pathology or diseases of the respiratory system can be identified at the initial stages.
When we breathe, our light first get a dose of oxygen and deliver it to all cells and tissues of the body in blood flow. Carbon dioxide, which formed in the process of breathing, is released from tissues and blood is transmitted back into the lungs, from which it comes out when exhaled. Free space that remains in cells after carbon dioxide is immediately filled with fresh oxygen. So there is a continuous gas exchange in the human body.
In order for oxygen to be transported on the blood vessels, it binds to hemoglobin molecules. This connection is called oxygemoglobin inside the body. It is a parameter that reflects saturation or oxygen level in human blood.
Why measure the level of oxygen saturation in the blood?
Saturation of lungs and fabrics O2 is vital for any person. It is necessary for us for normal life, the ability to perform daily functions, do physical exercises and just live. And 90% of all the energy person gets precisely from oxygen.
Respiratory failure may arise for a number of reasons:
- High blood pressure
- Thyroid disorders
- Heart pathology
- Blood blood supply
- Respiratory diseases
- Surgical operations
- Heavy injuries
- Coronavirus infection
Oxygen indicators are reduced with COVID-19 disease. When infection gets into the lungs, it affects the alveoli, which are involved in gas exchange, and then hemoglobin involved in transportation O2. Inflammation of tissues leads to the eightie and development of pneumonia.
The main danger of coronavirus is that with the lung forms of its manifestation, a person may not be symptoms of the disease. Temperature, cough and weakness are absent. A man feels good and not even thinking that the infection has already begun to hit the lungs.
Measuring oxygen level in the blood is one of the effective methods of preventing infection. With it, you can reveal the Cakes still at the initial stages and begin the appropriate treatment. The level of saturation level will help to prevent the development of the disease and avoid its progressive stage, when hospitalization and connection to the artificial ventilation apparatus are needed.
However, it should be remembered that at least measure the level of oxygen saturation can be independently prescribed, as well as to treat coronavirus at home, only a doctor can.
What is the level of oxygen level in the blood?
The value of the saturation of oxygen in the blood in adults and children is an individual indicator. It depends on the physiological characteristics of the organism and environmental factors. The norm is considered:
- 95-98% - in a healthy person
- 92-95% - with chronic diseases of the respiratory organs
- 92-95% - in smokers
When coronavirus, this figure decreases a few percent. To avoid oxygen starvation, a healthy person must begin to take action at 94%. When blood saturation oxygen sinks up to 90% and lower, the load on vital organs is increased - the heart, light, liver. This condition is very dangerous and requires immediate treatment. In the most severe cases, saturation can descend up to 70% when the patient is connected to the IVL apparatus. Hypoxcemic coma comes with indicators below 60%.
How to measure saturation at home?
To track your condition and avoid catastrophic consequences, you can independently control the level of oxygen in the blood at coronavirus. This can be done using a special instrument to measure the saturation of oxygen - pulse oximeter. Buy the pulsoximeter can be in the store of medical equipment or pharmacy.
Pulse oximeter is very easy to use. In addition to the level of saturation, it also measures the pulse. The device works as follows:
- The device is dressed on a finger or a uh lobe and begins to emit a wave of different lengths with a LED sensor.
- The degree of absorption of rays depends on the amount of oxygen, which is contained in the blood. Saturated blood cells absorb more infrared light.
- The device receives data on the refraction, reflection and passing these rays and gives the result.
To get the most reliable assessment, it is necessary to comply with certain rules:
- Do not drink alcoholic and energy drinks before the procedure
- Do not take food in 2 hours
- Do not take sedative and drugs that affect the work of cardiac or respiratory systems.
- Keep immobility during procedure
- Remove the lacquer from the finger to which the sensor dresses
- Remove the earring if the sensor is placed on the uhm
How to measure blood oxygen level without device?
Checking saturation with a pulse oximeter is recommended during a pandemic period, as well as in obesity, heart and light diseases, diseases of the thyroid.
If there is no apparatus at hand, but you have shortness of breath and concerns about your condition, at home you can spend an easy test. For the first time he was tried in England, now they enjoy the inhabitants of many countries. Despite the fact that his testimony is not considered as reliable as when using the device, the test will help identify violations in the operation of the respiratory organs.
How to check saturation without a pulse oximeter?
- Make a deep breath.
- Hold your breath.
- Schedule the time for 30 seconds.
Absolutely healthy lungs will withstand this test. Based on calculations, it is possible to approximately determine the level of saturation of oxygen:
- 30 seconds - norm in 95-98%
- 10 seconds - reduced indicator in 93-94%
- 7 seconds - extremely low level 90%
If the oxygen is lacking, you should contact the doctor for help, with the accompanying symptoms of coronavirus - cause a doctor to the house.
Another way to find out the level of blood saturation with oxygen is to pass the blood test in the clinic.
Is it possible to check the saturation by telephone or smart clock?
Technique does not stand still. Its opportunities are becoming much wider games and entertainment applications. With the help of gadgets, we learned to keep track of your pulse, physical activity and health status.
Despite the fact that many applications appeared that help track the oxygen level, none of them show you reliable information. This can be explained by the fact that for tracking saturation you need two instruments: a pulsometer and a sensor that shines the skin. There are no modern smartphones of this functional.
But some smart clocks boast such a function. In some models of fitness bracelets and Apple Watch, an LED is installed. It emits red and infrared waves, which shine the skin and detect saturation with oxygen in color. The gadgets also built into a special SPO2 sensor, where S is the level of saturation, P is the pulse, and O2 is oxygen. The sensor captures the signal and displays the results on the screen.
However, the testimony of such hours is also not correct. Their accuracy depends on the secondary factors: lighting, pressure and even the arrangement of the watch on the wrist. Therefore, it is not worth relying on the results of gadgets.
If you feel the slightest problems with your breath, there was a light shortness of breath and the pulse is likely, you probably have a low blood saturation level with oxygen. To make sure your fears, use a pulse oximeter or hand over blood test. Only they will give you a true result, on the basis of which the doctor will appoint appropriate treatment.
When we say the "heart knocks" or "beats", we are thereby describing such a thing familiar to us, like a human pulse. The fact that he reacts to internal states or external influences is the norm. The pulse is expelled from positive emotions and during stressful situations, with physical exertion and for diseases.
Whatever standing at the rate of the pulse is the most important biological marker of human well-being. But to be able to "decipher" signals submitted by the heart in the form of jolts and beats, you need to know which pulse is considered normal.
What is the arterial pulse: characteristics, properties
Most medical terms are rooted in Latin, so if you wonder what a pulse is worth contacting the translation.
The literal "pulse" means push or hit, that is, we give the correct characteristic of the pulse, saying "knocks" or "beats." And these strikes occur due to the reductions of the heart, leading to the vibrational movements of arterial walls. They arise in response to passing through the vascular walls of the pulse wave. How is it formed?
- When a myocardium is reduced, the blood is thrown out of the heart chamber in the arterial bed, the artery is expanding at this moment, the pressure in it increases. This period of the heart cycle is called systole.
- Then the heart relaxes and "picks up" a new portion of blood (this is a moment of diastoles), and the pressure in the artery falls. All this happens very quickly - the description of the process of the arterial pulse takes longer than its course in reality.
The larger the volume of blood pushed, the better the blood supply to the organs, so the normal pulse is the value in which the blood (together with oxygen and nutrients) enters the organs in the required volume.
On the state of a person during a survey, you can judge several properties of the pulse:
- frequency (quantity of jogs per minute);
- rhythm (equality of intervals between blows, if they are not the same, it means, the heartbeat is arrhythmic);
- speeds (drops and increase pressure in the artery, pathological is considered an accelerated or slow dynamics);
- voltage (the strength required for the termination of the pulsation, an example of strenuous heartbeat - pulse waves in hypertension);
- Filling (values folded partially from the voltage and height of the pulse wave and depending on the volume of blood in systole).
The power of the left ventricle compression is the greatest effect on the pulse filling. The graphic image of the measurement of the pulse wave is called Sphimography.
A table of a normal human pulse by year and ages is presented in the lower section of the article.
How to measure right?
A pulsating vessel for measuring the pulse frequency on the human body can be patched in different zones:
- From the inside of the wrist, under the thumb (radiation artery);
- in the zone of the viscov (temporal artery);
- on a fallen collar (poning);
- on bending at the scene of the pelvis and the lower limb (femoral);
- From the inside on the elbow bending (shoulder);
- On the neck under the right side of the jaw (sleepy).
The most popular and convenient is the measurement of heart rate on the radial artery, this vessel is located close to the skin. To measure, it is necessary to find a pulsating "veil" and attach the three fingers to it. Using the clock with a second arrow, count the number of beats per 1 minute.
How many blows per minute should be normal?
In the concept, the normal pulse invests the optimal amount of heartbeat per minute. But this parameter is not a constant, that is, constant because it depends on the age, the sphere of activity and even the sexuality of a person.
In a healthy person
The results of the measurement of the heart rate during the examination of the patient are always compared with how many shots per minute should be a pulse in a healthy person. This value is approached by 60-80 beats per minute in calm state. But under certain conditions, deviations are allowed from this rate of the heart pulse to 10 units in both directions. For example, it is believed that CSS in women always on 8-9 blows more often than in men. And athletes-professionals have a heart at all working in "ergonomic mode".
This means that a heartbeat with a frequency of 50 beats per minute or 90 shots can be optimal. More serious deviations from the norm of the pulse of a healthy person correlate with the age of a person.
An adult person's normal pulse believes are all the same 60-80 strikes per minute. Such a human pulse is the norm for the state of rest if an adult does not suffer from cardiovascular and other diseases affecting the heart rate. In adults, the heart rate increases with adverse weather conditions, during exercise, with an emotional splash. To return a person's pulse, a 10-minute rest is enough, this is a normal physiological reaction. If after resting the return of the heart rate, it does not happen to normal, there are grounds to consult a doctor.
If a man is engaged in intense sports workouts, then for him in a state of rest, even 50 shots per minute - the pulse is normal. The person trained the body adapts to the loads, the heart muscle is enlarged, due to which the amount of cardiac output increases. Therefore, the heart does not have to make multiple reductions to ensure normal blood flow - it works slowly, but qualitatively.
In men engaged in mental labor, bradycardia may be celebrated (CSS less than 60 blows per minute), but it is difficult to call physiological, since even minor loads in such men can cause opposite state - tachycardia (heart rate higher than 90 beats per minute). This negatively affects the work of the heart and can lead to a heart attack and other serious consequences.
To bring the pulse to the norm by age (60-70 biodies per minute), men are advised to balance the power, mode and physical exertion.
The norm of the pulse in women - 70-90 blows at rest, but many factors affect its indicators:
- diseases of internal organs;
- hormonal background;
- The age of women and others.
Noticeable excess of the CSS rate is observed in women during menopause. At this time, frequent episodes of tachycardia may be observed, intermitted with other arrhythmic manifestations and blood pressure drops. Many women often "sit down" at this age on sedatives, which is not always justified and not too useful. The best solution when the pulse is at rest deviates from the norm, is to visit the doctor and the selection of supporting therapy.
In pregnant women
CHSS change in women in the period of tooling the child in most cases is physiological and does not require the use of corrective therapy. But to make sure that the state physiologicalness, you need to know which pulse is normal for pregnant.
Without forgetting that for a woman, the rate of the pulse 60-90 is the norm, add that when pregnancy occurs, the heart rate begins to gradually become more expensive. For the first trimester, an increase in the heart rate is characterized by an average of 10 strikes, and to the third trimester - up to 15 "extra" jokes. Of course, these shocks are not unnecessary, they are necessary for pumping the circulating blood increased by 1.5 times in the blood circulatory system. How much should the pulse of a woman be in a position, depends on what the heart rate was before pregnancy - it can be 75, and 115 minutes of a minute. In pregnant women in the third trimester, the norm of the pulse is often disturbed due to lying in a horizontal position, because of which they are recommended to sleep aside or on the side.
The highest rate of pulse in humans in the ages is in infancy. For newborn pulse 140 per minute - norm, but by the 12th month this value is gradually decreasing, reaching 110-130 beats. The rapid heartbeat in the first years of life is explained by the intensive growth and development of a children's body requiring enhanced metabolic metabolism.
Further genthesis of heart rate is not so active, and the rate of 100 beats per minute is achieved to the 6-year age.
Only in the youthful age - 16-18 years old - the heart rate, finally, reaches the normal pulse of an adult per minute, declining to the indicators of 65-85 pushes per minute.
What pulse is considered normal?
Not only diseases affect the heart rate, but also temporary external influences. As a rule, the temporary increase in the heart rate can restore after the short-term recreation and eliminate provoking factors. And what should be the normal pulse for a person in different states?
This value that is considered the norm of the pulse for an adult person is actually the frequency of heartbeats alone.
That is, speaking about the norm of healthy heartbeat, we always mean the amount measured alone. For an adult, this rate is 60-80 beats per minute, but under certain conditions the norm may be 50 shots (in trained people) and 90 (in women and young people).
To calculate what a person has a normal pulse with moderate exercise, experts offer the following mathematical operations:
- The magnitude of the maximum pulse is calculated as the difference between the number 220 and the number of human years. (For example, for 20-year-olds, this value will be: 220-20 = 200).
- The magnitude of the minimum pulse (50% of the maximum): 200: 100x50 = 100 shots.
- Pulse rate with moderate loads (70% of the maximum): 200: 100x70 = 140 beats per minute.
Physical exertion may have different intensity - moderate and high, depending on which the pulse rate in a person getting these loads will be different.
We remember - for moderate physical exertion, the pulse rate ranges from 50 to 70% of the maximum value calculated as the difference between the number 220 and the total number of human years.
With high physical exertion, the example of which is the jog (as well as swimming for speed, aerobics, etc.), the pulse rate is calculated by a similar scheme. To find out what frequency of the human pulse is considered normal during run, use the following formulas:
- Recognize the difference between the number 220 and the age of a person, that is, the maximum pulse: 220-30 = 190 (for 30-year-old).
- Determine 70% of the maximum: 190: 100x70 = 133.
- Determine 85% of the maximum: 190: 100x85 = 162 impact.
The norm of the pulse when running ranges from 70 to 85% of the maximum value, which is the difference between 220 and the age of a person.
For burning fat
The formula for calculating the maximum pulse is useful and when calculating the rate of heart rate for burning fat.
Most of the fitness coaches are used to calculate the method of Finnish physiologist and a military doctor M. Carsonen, which has developed a method for determining the boundaries of the pulse for physical training. According to this method, the target zone or ZSZH (fat burning zone) is the heart rate within 50 to 80% of the maximum pulse.
When calculating the maximum heart pulse, the norm by age is not taken into account, but the age itself is taken into account. For example, take age for 40 years and calculate the rate of the pulse for ZSZH:
- 220 - 40 = 180.
- 180x0.5 = 90 (50% of the maximum).
- 180x0.8 = 144 (80% of the maximum).
- ZSZ ranges from 90 to 144 shots per minute.
Why does such a scatter turn out in numbers? The fact is that the rate of heart rate for training should be selected individually, taking into account the training, well-being and other features of the body. Therefore, before starting training (and in their process), a medical examination is necessary.
Gastroindial syndrome - a tangible increase in heart rate after meals - can be observed in various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular, endocrine system. A patterical state speaks a heartbeat significantly exceeding the norm. Does there really have an increase in heart rate during meals?
Strictly speaking, a slight increase in the heart rate during or 10-15 minutes after meals is a physiological state. Food entered in the stomach presses on the diaphragm, which makes it deeper and more often breathe - from here and strengthen the heart rate. Especially often there is an exception of the pulse when overeating.
But even if food is eaten a little, and the heart still begins to knock faster, it is not always a sign of pathology. Just for digesting food requires an increase in metabolism, and for this - and a slight increase in heart rate.
The pulse rate after eating is approximately equal to the normal indicator with moderate physical exertion.
We have already learned how to count it, it remains only to compare your own pulse after eating with the norm calculated by the formula.
Cardiac Frequency Table by Age
To compare your own measurements with optimum, it is useful to have a table of pulse norm at hand. It contains the minimum and maximum permissible values of the heart rate. If your heartbeat is less than the minimum value of the norm, you can suspect bradycardia, if more maximal is possible - tachycardia is possible. But only a doctor can determine it.
Table. Pulse norms by age.
|Age category||Minimum value of the norm (shock per minute)||Maximum value of the norm (shock per minute)||On average (shock per minute)|
|The first month of life||110.||170.||140.|
|The first year of life||100||160.||130.|
|Up to 2 years||95.||155.||125.|
|40-60||60.||90-100 (women are raised)||75-80|
The data are given for people without special pathologies and measurements in a state of complete rest, that is, immediately after waking up or after a 10-minute rest lying. After 45 women, it is worth paying attention to a somewhat overestimated heart rate, which is associated with hormonal perestroika during the period of Klimaks.
From the following video, you can find additional information about the human pulse rate:
- The heart rate is an important physiological indicator of human health.
- The norm of the pulse varies depending on age, gender, training and other physical characteristics of the human body.
- Temporary oscillations of heart rate on 10-15 units can be physiological and do not always require drug intervention.
- If the CSS man exceeds the norm by age on a significant number of blows per minute, you need to consult a doctor and find out the cause of deviation.
During the measurement of pressure, attention is more applied to the indicators. At the same time, few people think about the difference between them. This is nothing but the pulse pressure. It is from him that the state of the whole organism depends. It is for this reason that it is important to know what the indicator should be in the norm and what happens in the body when it changes.
It is very important to know the difference between the upper and lower pressure
Blood pressure: what is it
In order to determine the pulse pressure, it is necessary to find out from what indicators hell is being folded. During the pressure measurement, two digits are written. It is the difference between them and there is a pulse pressure. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to find out how two indicators receive and what they testify.
Systole is a period of maximum reduction of the muscles of the heart when it drives blood according to the vessels, that is, pressure on the walls of the arteries and veins at the time of muscle contraction. In a healthy person, this indicator must be within 110 to 130 units. At the same time, older people will have higher rates.
Systole directly depends on the strength of the reduction of the heart, its speed and condition of the heart muscle.
When vessels are clogged with cholesterol plaques, pressure rises
The systole rate also affects the state of the vessels. If they are narrowed or their walls are covered with cholesterol plaques, the indicator will be significantly increased. Conversely, if there is a pronounced fatigue, intoxication of the body, the pressure will decrease.
Any deviation from the norm is a reason to appeal to the doctor. Periodic increase or decrease in systole gradually leads to a violation of peripheral blood circulation, and in the absence of treatment, large vessels begin to suffer. Ultimately, this leads to very serious diseases carrying a threat to human life.
The lower indicator is called diastolic. This is a pressure arising in vessels with a relaxed heart muscle, that is, this is the speed with which blood circulates by vessels outside the heart cut. A completely healthy person has an indicator from 64 to 79 units. With a good tone of the vessels and the elasticity of their walls of diastole, 74-79 units will be equal to 74-79.
It is very important to measure the diastolic pressure.
The diastole rate is more affected by the state of peripheral vessels.
The value also has the volume of all circulating blood, the frequency of reduction of the heart. When violations from the vessels, the indicator begins to change. At the same time, the diastolic pressure may decline or increase and in the absence of pathologies, for example, after severe stress, with temperature drops and so on. In such a situation, it is enough to relax and the indicators will come to normal.
The pronounced changes in diastolic pressure indicate serious violations in the body requiring the intervention of a specialist. With a decrease in the tissue diastole, the oxygen is not allowed, which negatively affects the state of the cells.
Stress has a strong influence on pressure
Deciding with the terms of systolic pressure and diastolic, it becomes clear that the difference between them, that is, the pulse pressure is the same important indicator that requires attention. Normally, this indicator should be 35-40 units. When changing this figure, pronounced changes begin in vessels and in the tissues of the heart, which is dangerous to human health.
Exceeding norm - what is the danger
The big difference in the indicators is most often due to a decrease in diastole. It depends on the elasticity of blood vessels. It, in turn, has an influence of renin - a substance that stands out in the kidneys. Accordingly, with a decrease in diastole, it is recommended to exclude deviations from this organ.
In the event that systolic pressure increases, it is possible to assume deviations from the heart muscle. The increased indicator indicates that the heart works too intensively. Subsequently, this can lead to the expansion of the chambers of the heart and the rapid wear of the tissues.
With a decrease in diastole, check the work of the kidneys
The most common cause of the reduction of diastole is atherosclerosis - a dangerous disease requiring treatment.
It is important to note that the increase in pulse pressure is always accompanied by a decrease in force with which the blood pushes through the vessels. This leads to the fact that the tissues of the brain are experiencing an acute lack of oxygen, which threatens such dangerous states as a stroke or heart attack. In addition, the continuous increase in the indicator leads to the expansion of the heart chambers.
It may also be that the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure increases by reducing diastoles. This is accompanied by weakness, dizziness and fainting. Such a state may indicate the pathology of the gallbladder, disruption of the function of digestive organs and even on active tuberculosis.
With a large pressure difference begins headaches, dizziness up to fainting
Separately, it is possible to consider the situation when this indicator increases in women. In most cases, hormonal changes or climax are caused. In such a situation, it is not enough to take drugs to normalize the blood pressure. It is important to eliminate the cause, namely to stabilize the level of hormones.
But you should not immediately fall into panic, if you saw a big difference in the indicators on the tonometer. First of all, it should be remembered that with age, the elasticity of the vascular wall decreases, which means that the difference between the indicators will grow. In addition, the independent measurement does not always give 100% exact indicators. Therefore, if after the first dimension you noticed a big difference between the systole and diastole, try to relax, and then again measure the hell.
Thus, if the physiological cause of the difference between indicators (fatigue, stress) is excluded, you need to examine and eliminate the following pathologies:
One of the frequent causes of the difference in the upper and lower pressure is heart failure
- heart failure;
- Pathology of the thyroid gland.
Reducing the difference - reasons for deviations
With a small difference, there is a decrease in the speed of blood flow by vessels. The most common cause is the pathology of the heart. The muscle can no longer be reduced with the desired force, which causes these deviations. In addition, patients with signs of VD are complaining quite often at low level pressure. It is explained by the fact that in this disease there is a spasamp of vessels and blood can no longer circulate at the right speed.
It is especially dangerous when there is a sharp decrease in pulse pressure. This situation may occur against the background of internal bleeding. The state is extremely dangerous and requiring emergency care.
Patients often observed irritability
In order to estimate the patient's condition, it is necessary to find out how to properly determine the pulse pressure indicator. First of all, the difference must be at least thirty units. In addition, this number should be at least ¼ from the systolic pressure indicator.
The small gap between the upper and lower pressure may be accompanied by the following clinic:
- Pain in the head;
- Reduced concentration.
Another possible symptom is apathy
The presence of several signs should be a reason to appeal to a specialist and carry out a full examination. Special attention is paid to the differential diagnosis of such pathologies as:
- heart failure;
- Aortic stenosis;
- renal failure;
In the event that the drop in the indicator is observed as a result of pronounced bleeding, pressure stabilization occurs only after stopping bleeding. In some cases, the difference decreases and after intensive physical exertion. Despite the fact that this state is physiological, it is also dangerous and requires correction. If the condition does not improve in full peace for a few minutes, you should call an ambulance doctor.
If nothing helps, call an ambulance
Regardless of whether the difference increases between hell or decreases, the situation is hazardous to health. If at the initial stage of the planology of the complaints will be limited only to weakness and dizziness, there will be dangerous consequences in the future, such as cardiosclerosis, renal failure, and so on.
Pressure and pulse rate
If we consider that the normal indicators are numbers equal to 80 and 120, it becomes clear that the pulse pressure should be 40 units. In the 45 indicator, pathological changes in the tissues of vessels and hearts are already beginning. At 65, there is a risk of developing hazardous deviations in the work of the heart. If the indicator decreases less than 35, weakness appears, and in the future the diseases of important bodies are formed.
The elderly norm increases significantly and for them, the pulse pressure of 50 units is not considered a deviation.
But there is one "but". The fact is that all three indicators should be considered in aggregate. Thus, if the patient has a pressure of 160/100 mm RT. Art., pulse is within the normal range, but at the same time systole, and diastoles are strongly elevated. This suggests that the heart works too intensively and may fail. The situation also looks like low indicators, for example, 90/55 mm Hg. Art., That is, the heart works too slowly.
When measuring pressure, it is necessary to take into account all the indicators in the complex to assess the patient's condition
For this reason, it is important to know the rate of not only the pulse pressure, but also two other indicators:
- The upper indicator may vary from 98 to 138 units;
- The lower should always be in the interval between 59 and 88 units.
Thus, we can conclude that all nuances are important to assess the health of the human health of the person, and not only the hell, reflecting systole and diastole. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account his physical and psycho-emotional state. It is impossible to measure hell immediately after loads. It is necessary to provide 7-10 minutes of peace and only then to carry out measurements. Then the results will be reliable.
In this video will be told than the difference between the upper and lower pressure is dangerous:
All materials provided on the site are needed for educational purposes and are not intended for medical advice, diagnosis and treatment.
Saturation oxygen in the blood - the norm in adults
In the normal state, a person makes up to 20 sighs per minute, and for saturation, 10 sighs are enough. When the breath is normal, then the person feels good, and the cells and organs are filled with oxygen.
What is blood saturation
Saturation oxygen in the blood - what is it? This definition understand the parameter that indicates the level of saturation 2Arterial blood (hemoglobin) in percentage ratio. The indicator normally indicates the absence of pathologies in the body.
In the blood of a healthy person, saturation will be 95-98%. In smokers or patients with chronic diseases of the respiratory organs, the indicator is 92-95%, but taking into account the diseases - this is normal.
The percentage of saturation 2It is important to control the condition of patients suffering from respiratory failure. If adults in the blood oxygen saturation is at least 95%, then the indicator of newborns and older children is 93-96%. During the development and growth of babies, the hemoglobin level is lower, the body cannot sufficiently capture gas from the air.
What is the norm of saturation
Oxygen saturation occurs through the lungs. A person does breathe, air penetrates inside through the capillary system, and blood cells transporting all substances spread it to the tissues.
How can I describe the process:
- Capillars surrounding Alveola take and transport about 2.
- Arterial blood comes along a large circulation of blood circulation, taking the required gas, tolerates it to the tissues.
- Venous blood, poor oxygen, goes back to Alveola.
In the erythrocytes of hemoglobin at normal condition captures 4 molecules about 2. From the average number of blood cells capable of seizing the index of saturation. 100% is an impossible parameter, there is an error of 1%, not every cell is capable of capturing a lot of gas molecules.
How saturation is determined
Diagnostics implies the use of two methods, each has an error in 1%, from here the accuracy of the data is 100%.
If the laboratory uses the measurement of saturation by the invasive method. Material for analysis is closed through the puncture, arterial blood is closed for analysis, 1 g of hemoglobin is 1.34 ml o 2:
- Set the rate of saturation in percent.
- Determine the volume of gas transferred by blood cells.
- Calculate how much blood is hemoglobin in the blood.
When all studies are completed, then the results with the norm O2 in the blood occurs. Hypoxia is detected in the early stages when analyzing the development of the fetus during pregnancy. In children, the norm of saturation differs from adults.
|Indicator in adults,%||Children aged from 1 to 10 years,%||Proper fetal development,%||Low degree of hypoxia,%||Heavy hypoxia,%|
Using a pulse oximeter
The device is a means for a non-invasive method for calculating 2In hemoglobin. The method is suitable for coronavirus infection in the body, during the formation of blood closures, circulatory disorders. The method is fast and does not cause unpleasant sensations.
Pulse oximeters are stationary and portable. Both variants show oxygen saturation norm in adults.
- Stationary devices are used in resuscitation conditions when COVID-19 causes severe consequences.
- Portable pulse oximeter helps to monitor the level of oxygen at a mild disease at home.
During the treatment period, measurements of oxygen levels in the blood are performed. The indicator may differ if a person delays his breath during the level measurement of the level of saturation. It is important to conduct research during the patient's sleep, the cyclicity of measurements is appointed in the course of treatment.
How the pulse oximeter works
The devices differ in the way of exposure. A special bracelet for hand, which is fixed on the wrist and a small box, which is fixed on the belt - transmission devices.
If used to determine O2 other types of devices fixing light waves, which are refracted and reflected from the tissues of organs, they are attached to other places - face, body, shoulders.
With a reduced level of saturation, the device necessarily gives a beep, which symbolizes about the problems in the body.
For accurate data and compliance with diagnostics, patients are advised to follow the rules:
- The patient refuses one day from alcohol and smoking. This includes black tea, drinks with caffeine and others.
- Before studying, the last meal must end 2 hours ago, it is not so important, but in the end affects the result.
- Do not take sedative medicines, any means affecting the respiratory system.
- During diagnostics, the patient should not move or delay the breath, you need to breathe and not worry.
For some reason
The development of infectious diseases of the lungs is a signal to reduce 2in blood. With extensive bleeding, injuries with large blood loss levels level O2 drops sharply.
If a person has long suffered overweight and it develops 2 or 3 degree of obesity, the level of gases in the blood decreases. Other pathological processes are also diagnosed:
- blood circulation violation;
- partial anemia;
- Disruption of the thyroid gland;
- Easy extent of hypertension.
Violation of metabolism contributes to the incomplete saturation of organs and cells by oxygen. Fabrics begin to gradually die and necrosis is observed, leading to detrimental consequences.
With intensive sports activities, the level of o2 o2 is reduced. Student heartbeat, drowsiness, low pressure and dizziness arises. Increases anxiety, in some cases, panic attacks at night, tachycardia, tremor and swelling of the lower extremities.
With a sharp decline in the level of saturation, especially during the period of coronavirus pandemic, doctors quickly make a solution to restore O2 with the help of hydroatherapy.
|Saturation,%||What are taking|
|Below 92%||Oxygen hub, oxygen springs are required. To serve O2 use masks and cannulas.|
|Below 86%||Typically, the patient is hospitalized and use invasive or non-invasive lung ventilation.|
|Below 80%||The patient is connected to the IVL apparatus to maintain life support. But at the same time introduced into the drug to whom.|
After the diagnosis of the disease, it is necessary to eliminate the cause of blood saturation impairment with oxygen. Special techniques of normalization about 2in organism.
Abundant drinking water
A large amount of water drilled affects the level of oxygen in the blood. When the cells are saturated with water, the exchange process occurs, gas is derived and the oxygen is absorbed. Every day, a person loses up to 300 ml of water and therefore it is important to fill the loss in a timely manner. And during the pandemic period and the treatment of the disease, the level of saturation with water is at least 2 liters per day.
Respiratory gymnastics helps to saturate the organism with oxygen. Respiratory quality is developing with deep breaths and slow exhalations. So you need to do for several minutes.
With regular breathing, the lungs begin to work better, the difference is immediately felt. Breathing training increases endurance, the excitement is reduced, the operation of the central nervous system is normalized, the level of stress is reduced.
Author: Panina Irina Pulmonologist, allergist
The level of oxygen in the blood at COVID-19 decreases because pulmonary alveoli is inflamed, filled with liquid and lose the ability to take it from the air. Such a phenomenon is called hypoxemia and is accompanied by characteristic signs - shortness of breath, dizziness, pale / formation of skin, rapid breathing and pulse.
If the indicators fall to critical values - below 93% - emergency hospitalization and forced oxygen supply is necessary.
What it is
Saturation in medicine is a blood saturation with oxygen, measured as a percentage and denoted as SPO2. Its values are very important because they indicate problems with respiratory and cardiac activity before the first signs of the oxygen deficit.
In the body there is continuous gas exchange between blood cells and tissues. Blood is saturated with oxygen in the lungs and transfers it to the tissues. The latter in the process of exchange are given waste formed by breathing and "change" carbon dioxide for oxygen.
Carbon dioxide, in turn, is transported by blood back into the lungs, of which it comes out when exhaling outwards. At the same time, the space is released in red blood cells, immediately occupied by oxygen. Such is the cycle of gases, which is a breathing cycle.
Gas exchange is carried out due to the penetration of gases into hemoglobin molecules, binding to it through the iron molecule in its composition. Hemoglobin forms red blood cells that give blood characteristic red.
Hemoglobin with oxygen inside is called oxymemoglobin - it is its digital value that reflects the level of saturation and saturation of oxygen.
Saturation is measured by a special device - pulse oximeter, including its varieties for home use, and fitness bracelets. However, the latter can show less accurate numbers.
With low blood saturation values of oxygen, the device of artificial ventilation of the lungs is connected - IVL. First, the ventilation is performed by inhalation through a mask or a nasal catheter, if this is not enough, the tracheal intubation is carried out with the installation of an endotracheal tube or a procedure of ECMO-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
The purpose of measurements
The meaning of the actions of the medical staff to measure saturation is to prevent respiratory failure. After entering the coronavirus into the light of its molecules damage alveoli, responsible for gas exchange with pulmonary capillaries.
The tissue of the lungs begins to move, which leads to the development of the inflammatory process - pneumonia. Because of the edema, the required volume of oxygen ceases to flow into the blood. In addition, according to the results of the latest studies, the ability of COVID-19 to violate the hemoglobin structure is discovered: a new coronavirus strain deprives its ability to deliver oxygen to cells.
Pneumonia with a new SARS-COV-2 can flow long enough in a hidden, latent form and in no way manifest. Some patients have only weakness and dismisses, the temperature does not rise, shortness of breath and cough are either no, or weakly pronounced.
Then, against the background of almost complete health, the condition deteriorates sharply, the disease is rapidly progressing, and reveal it at the critical stage. Therefore, saturation with coronavirus is one of the early and most reliable symptoms of the risk of developing respiratory failure. It objectively indicates whether the patient needs intensive therapy and the immediate supply of oxygen.
Depending on the saturation indicator, the method of maintaining the function of the respiratory system is selected. If the reduction is minor, sufficiently supplied air through the mask or catheter, and the person breathes himself.
In the event of a sharp drop in the concentration of oxygen in the patient's blood, they are connected to the IVL apparatus. With a severe course of coronavirus infection, the ECMO method is used, and a membrane oxygenator is connected to the patient. Venous or arterial blood is taken, which is cleared, is saturated with oxygen and returns to the bloodstream.
What should be saturation in normal
The norm in adults is 95-98%, but when coronavirus, it can decrease to 91-92% and lower. With severe forms of respiratory failure, it is possible to drop a saturation up to 70% and less. However, in the case of available concomitant diseases of the bronchopulmonary system, the body responds somewhat differently to the lack of oxygen, and its signs appear already with a decrease in saturation to 88%.
How the disadvantage of oxygen is manifested
With a decrease in the indices of saturation in an adult, a shortness of breath arises, it breathes often and superficially, makes more than 20 inhales and exhale per minute. The heart beats quickly, the skin is pale, a blue shade can appear on it. Many patients complain about sudden weakness, fast fatigue even after insignificant physical activity.
A slight decrease in blood oxygen is manifested by apaticity, headache, dizziness and drowsiness. The patient who develops hypoxemia does not have interest in what is happening around, with difficulty concentrates attention, his memory can deteriorate. Some literally observes the "noise of reason".
In the lungs and medium-free cases of measurements, they are carried out with a pulse oximeter - a device resembling a conventional clothespin, powered by a finger, a uham lobe or other part of the body. On the same side of the pulse oximeter is a screen where saturation indicators are displayed.
The principle of operation of the device is based on the properties of substances absorb light waves of different lengths. In this case, this substance is hemoglobin and its ability to absorb light depending on the saturation of oxygen.
In the intensive care compartments, not only the level of saturation, but also calculate the oxygenation index, or respiratory index. To this end, you first spend spirometry to check the functioning of the lungs, giving the patient to ride into the tube.
The device reads information at a particular point in time, but some models can also save data and build graphs.
The reduced values of the oxygenation index are the most accurate criterion indicating the development of a formidable complication of coronavirus pneumonia - acute respiratory distress syndrome (ORDS).
To decide how and what procedures to do the patient, a complex assessment of its condition is required. Therefore, a detailed examination is carried out in which the overall blood test is included, the study of the gas composition and acid-alkaline balance, analysis on the content of electrolytes. According to the results, the O2 is selected, and the question of connecting to the IVL is solved.
As the oxygen is supplied
It must be immediately said that the enrichment of blood oxygen can not be cured or killed coronavirus. Increased saturation is a method of symptomatic therapy, allowing to normalize the operation of respiratory organs.
Moreover, with the easiest flow of Kovid, the oxygen-satizing activities are inappropriate, and they are made only by severe patients or those who are in critical condition.
To stimulate and maintain respiratory activities, apply:
- Standard oxygen supply through a mask or nasal cannula (put in the nose);
- oxygen therapy in the number-position when the patient lies on the stomach;
- Intubation with the introduction of the tube in the trachea and the connection to the IVL.
It should be noted that oxygen therapy in the number-position is very actively and successfully applied in resuscitation departments. When a person lies on the stomach, the ventilation and percussion relations are changed in the lungs - more simply, the alveoli breathe freely by reducing the pressure of inflammatory fluid.
As a result, the areas of the lungs are better ventilated, in which it has not been sufficiently oxygen, since the patient lay on his back. In addition, a large lung area is involved in the respiratory process, and the negative effect of the IVL device is somewhat reduced.
In other words, the number contributes to the improvement of the oxygen transition into the blood from the alveoli, thereby increasing the oxygenation. Such an uncomplicated method allows you to treat many people with heavy forms of pneumonia.
Only those patients who did not help their breath through the mask or nasal cannula and therapy in the number of the mask or therapy are connected to the IVL.
In the intensive care chambers, the method of supplying oxygen is chosen depending on how many percent of saturation will show a pulse oximeter. At its level from 80 to 93%, a mask is used, the value below 75% is an indication to connect the IVL with the introduction of an endotracheal tube or conducting tracheostomy.
Helium - relief for the lungs
You can saturate blood oxygen by mixing it with helium. This technique allows you to achieve:
- accelerating the normalization of the gas composition;
- reduction of acidity;
- Prevent heavy complications;
- improving blood supply and microcirculation in the tissues of the lungs.
A mixture of oxygen with helium is preheated to T = 92 ° and is supplied to its patient. The procedure lasts about 15 minutes. Supporters of this method state that inhalation of "therapeutic pair" does not cause discomfort, and sensations resemble stay in the sauna.
At this stage, the oxygen-helium technique passes clinical trials at the Institute. Sklifosovsky.
It should be noted that pure oxygen without impurities are used in the IVL devices. However, there is no particular sense in its purity, since it almost does not reach the pulmonary alveol. In addition, the density of oxygen exceeds the density of air - 1.43 against 1.2 kg / m 3, and this means that it is difficult to breathe.
It is quite another thing when oxygen is combined with helium. As part of the air, which we breathe, 78% nitrogen and only 21% oxygen, nitrogen here is a kind of "solvent" of this compound, since its density is less compared to oxygen. The density of helium is below the nitrogen density of 6.5 times, therefore, in compound with oxygen, it serves it with a real "dilution".
On the other hand, helium can not be called a panacea. Its effectiveness in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 has not yet found clinical confirmation, although there is a positive effect. Significant factor is its high cost - the cost of helium in 2020 increased twice and amounts to about 2 thousand rubles per m. 3. But the main thing is not even this, but the lack of special installations, more complex and expensive compared to IVL devices, as well as qualified specialists to work with them.
Previously, helotherapy was used in specialized medical centers. Opportunities for its soon implementation are available at the Moscow Institute of Sklifosovsky, and when this practice comes to the rest of the clinics, especially in provincial cities, depends on the top management of health care.
See also: Hair loss after coronaivirus: how to having to do what to do, how to stop when Covida in women?
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Hello, dear readers. Arterial pressure is one of the most important health status indicators. Its value is normal to fluctuate in small limits. The slightest deviation from these boundaries often signals a pathological state. Naturally, such a phenomenon should concern a person and make him seek help from a specialist. The detection of illness at the initial stage will help prevent the process of its development. So, the upper and lower pressure is the difference, the norm, the possible causes of deviations will be discussed below.
What is blood pressure - how correctly is measured
As one of the main criteria for evaluating the work of the circulatory system, the blood pressure (blood pressure) depends on the elasticity of the vascular walls and the power of blood emissions in compression of the heart muscle.
It is at the moments of its abbreviation (systole), when the blood wave is hosted with force along the vessels, the upper pressure value is noted. Periods of heart abbreviations alternate with short moments of recreation, when the heart muscles are relaxed.
This condition is called diastole. At this time, blood passing through the entire body again returns to the starting point. Here the value of hell is minimal.
The pressure indicators have a significant impact of a person's lifestyle. Under this implies the presence of dependencies (narcotic, alcoholic, nicotinic, drug), exposure to psycho-emotional overloads and resistance (organism resistance) to them, nutrition quality, availability and volume of physical exertion. Also hell depends on belonging to a certain age group and the presence of certain diseases.
How correct pressure is measured
To record pressure indicators, a special device is used, which is called a tonometer. In fact, it is an ordinary pressure gauge equipped with an air cuff and a pear for feeding air into it.
It can be manual or work on a complete machine. The latter species is not a very accurate result, especially if the device is used on the wrist. Also need a stethoscope.
Before starting the measurement, the patient must calm down. If before that, for example, he quickly walked or climbed down the steps, then you need to wait a few minutes until the heart rhythm comes to normal. Also, do not begin to measure immediately after meals, it must pass at least 30 minutes.
To obtain accurate results for the last hour, the patient should not smoke, use exciting drinks (coffee, energy, alcohol). The indicators can also affect the overcrowded bladder. Therefore, before the procedure, it is recommended to visit the toilet.
- It is necessary to take a person and arrange his hand so that the elbow bend is about one line with a heart.
- The hand needs to be free from the sleeve and completely relax.
- The tonometer cuff should be positioned above the elbow bend so that its lower edge is on three fingers above the joint.
- The acoustic head of the stethoscope is placed in the center of the inner surface of the elbow articulation. It is here that the pulse is well listened during the procedure. The device must be tightly apply to the surface of the hand, and not press.
- With the help of pears, the air is pumped into the pneumomage, while the pressure gauge arrow indicates 220-200 mm Hg. Art. - It is in such units that the pressure is measured.
- After you slowly descend the air, listening to the pulse. When it is first, it should be noted that the tonometer arrow showed. This will be the upper hell.
- Now you should wait until the blows are heard. Tonometer readings in this moment give the value of the lower blood pressure.
For accuracy of measurements, it is recommended to repeat the procedure for another 1-2 times and averaged the results obtained.
Indicators on different hands may differ. Therefore, you need to choose the one of them, where the values will be higher. Almost always froze performed on the left hand.
What is the top and bottom pressure
So, as a result of the measurement, two digits were obtained. The first of them, higher, reflects the stream of blood flow through vascular walls. That is, it expresses the power of cardiac abbreviation.
Because this upper pressure threshold is called systolic. The second digit shows the level of blood pressure at the time of heart relaxation. This is a diastolic pressure. Each of these values is important and a change in any of them indicates deviations in the work of the body.
The level of blood pressure is invariably reflected not only on the well-being, but also the working capacity of the person and even his setting.
Top and lower pressure - difference, rate
What is the top pressure
Systolic pressure (SD) is also called the top. This is due to the fact that the dual value of hell is recorded by a doctor in the form of a common fraction. In this case, the figure obtained during the heart systole goes to the upper part of it - hence the name.
The testimony of SD primarily characterizes the power of heart abbreviations, that is, indicates the condition and performance of the heart. Therefore, the upper pressure is still called "cardiac".
In addition to the heart, the very value of the pressure is influenced by the condition of large vessels of the organism led by the aorta.
What shows top
Based on the foregoing, systolic pressure indicators give an idea of the heart's power, the state of the heart muscle. This value affects the frequency of its abbreviations, as well as their strength.
In addition, the SD gives an idea of the state of aorta and other major vascular highways of the body. Of course, there are mean values of this indicator that is considered to be standard.
However, with a regular measurement, individual characteristics should be taken into account - with certain states, several non-standard pressure levels are the norm for a particular person.
What does it depend on
"Heart" (systolic) pressure during deviation from the standard value may indicate a significant pathology, such as ischemia.
Also on changing this indicator other factors are influenced, such as:
- frequency of muscle cuts of the heart;
- the size of the internal space of the left heart ventricle;
- speed of blood flow;
- elasticity of arterial walls.
For the standard value, systolic pressure, equal to 120, is taken at the same time a slight fluctuation of this indicator is allowed. Therefore, the generally accepted norm is considered from 110-120 mm Hg. Art. The systolic pressure level can be fluent during the day. This is not a deviation.
If the highest level of pressure increases to 140, then the spectacle is already talking about systolic hypertension. It should be understood that this value is a deviation for a healthy person. For hypertensive, SD = 140 is the norm.
In hypotension, the upper value of 90 is considered normal. The interval between 120 and 140 mm RT. Art. It is a pre-readenzion state. But for some reason, there is neither among the doctors, nor among their patients among physicians.
If the upper indicator regularly rises by 20-30 divisions above the laid, then we are talking about hypertension. This can be as a consequence of certain diseases and independent pathology. The overestimated pressure indicates faults in the work of the endocrine glands, heart, vascular system.
The understatement of the indicators is not as dangerous, but also signals the presence of violations, the mismatch of the functions of the body. This deteriorates gas exchange and nutrition of tissues, the development of stagnant phenomena is possible. A sharp pressure drop to low indicators causes anyone and threatens with a fatal outcome.
It should be noted that the unit deviation of the value from normal in one direction or another should not cause anxiety. This does not at all indicate any pathological process. But the regularity of these changes should alert and become a reason for visiting the therapist or a cardiologist.
What does the lower pressure of a person mean
The minimum blood pressure value reflects the condition of the urinary system and kidneys in particular. Here, renin is thrown into the blood, which activates the tone of the smooth muscles of the vessels and is reflected in the magnitude of the diastolic pressure (DD). Because DD is called not only the bottom, but also "renal" pressure.
What is responsible for
The lower pressure is formed by the peripheral vessels. Therefore, it is their elasticity, elasticity, the tone affects this indicator. The rate of progress of blood flow through blood tubes can be determined by the value of DD.
This indicator should not differ from the norm by more than 10 units of RT. Art. If such a deviation was noticed not once, it signals the possible presence of failures in the work of the kidney structures or on the development of other deviations.
What does it depend on
The value of the diastolic pressure level is formed depending on:
- Tonus of vascular walls;
- degrees of arteries;
- the frequency of muscular heart abbreviations.
The high pressure indicator may indicate the development of various diseases. This may be hormonal imbalance, minimization of the renal artery, kidney disease (the presence of pyelonephritis, romoulicephritis, etc.), violations of the functions of the domestic secretion glands, tumors.
If the indicator of DD is underestimated, then this may be a consequence of tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, anemic phenomena, lack of fluid in the body.
Transferred stress can also cause the fall of the lower blood pressure.
For a healthy person, the lower pressure is considered normal in the range from 60 to 80 mm Hg. Art. With a rack change of the indicator to 105, it is possible to conclude about the beginning of the formation of arterial hypertension.
Further increase in DD levels about the progression of pathology. High pressure takes 120 mm Hg. Art. At the same time, there is a general weakening of the body.
Symptoms are similar to the usual overwork:
- problems with focus;
- high fatigue;
- reduction of memory;
- increased anxiety;
- Strengthening sweating.
Therefore, when such signs are detected, a series of blood pressure measurements should be carried out and in the presence of a persistent overestimation of diastolic pressure to seek medical help. From increased pressure, the wear of blood vessels increases, the blood circulation and the quality of gas exchange is worse.
What value is blood pressure measurement
It is necessary to produce measurements of blood pressure levels regularly. This will help identify the development of all sorts of deviations in the initial stages. Then it will be easier to get rid of them. In addition, it is necessary to measure pressure when the course of treatment is passing.
Tracking changes AD will make it possible to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the assigned therapy and to promptly adjust the method of receiving medicines.
How to decipher the pressure of a person
When measuring arterial pressure, it is not necessary to pay attention to the generally accepted standard values, but on individual indicators. They are also called "workers" pressure. It is determined empirically throughout a certain time segment.
Pressures depends on various factors. The value has:
- age - than younger patient, the blood pressure below;
- Floor - representatives of the female half of the population, indicators are slightly lower than in men;
- physical effort before measuring;
- lack of bad habits;
- the state of the nervous system;
- the presence of chronic diseases;
- Emotional background.
The difference between the upper and lower pressure
There is such a concept as a pulse pressure. It reflects the spread between the top and bottom limits of blood pressure values. This indicator is also important. Its changes can help in the diagnostic process.
Even with an overwhelmed or understated pressure, the difference between diastolic and systolic pressure can remain unchanged.
But there is also a distance between these indicators, then the value of one of them (lower or upper) changes stronger than the other or even regardless of it. Normally, the pulse pressure indicator must be within 30-50 units.
If the spread between the upper and lower pressure boundaries is reduced, then this signals the failures in the operation of the circulatory system.
High probability of availability:
- renal deviations;
- liver failure;
- sclerotic changes in the heart;
- endocrine disorders;
- Vascular stenosis.
When the pulse pressure is less than 30, it can lead to visual anomalies, paralysis of respiratory muscles, oxygen starvation, stopping the heart.
A big difference
Large scatter between diastolic and systolic indicators is characteristic of elderly patients. If the SD does not change, and DD is growing from it, then the tremor is observed, high irritability, darkening in the eyes, weakening attention, apathy, fainting can happen.
This occurs due to the presence of various diseases associated with the bral and its ducts; digestive deviations, tuberculosis.
A minor deviation of the pulse value from the norm may be caused by the imperfection of the measuring instrument.
This is especially characteristic of electronic tonometers of dubious quality. So do not fall into panic. You just need to make an appointment with a cardiologist or a therapist and clarify the situation.
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The optimal humidity of the air in the apartment is determined by the norms of GOST and SanPine, the well-being of a person, the time of the year, the purpose of the room. The average indicator is 40-60% considered the norm. If the content of water vapor in the air is higher, favorable conditions are created for the development of the fungus on the walls, and during excess dryness, the mucous membranes dry out, itching the skin can appear, cough.
What is air humidity
In molecular physics, air humidity implies the content in the air of a water vapor ambient. One hundred percent moisture is characterized by the appearance on condensate surfaces. Outside, with such indicators, precipitation falls out.
Normal humidity in the residential room is usually different from that on the street. In the apartment, it is more stable, while in the environment changes under the influence of the change of seasons of the year - in the fall and in the spring it is higher, in winter during frost and in the summer in severe heat below.
Humidity fluctuations are caused by temperature. With overly high - water molecules evaporate, and at very low - crystallizes. In the residential room, the air most often makes dry radiators of central heating.
What is measured in humidity
The ideal air humidity in the apartment is the one at which a person feels comfortable. When determining, the concept of relative humidity (RH) is used. Unit of measurement - g / m 3, grams per meter cubic. Modern hygrometers show normal humidity in the house in percentage terms.
What makes a deviation from the norm
If the average humidity of the room is significantly higher than the norm (more than 20-30%), various problems may occur:
- The appearance of mold. Wet and warm medium is the best condition for the development of the argument of fungus. Mold is more often formed in the bathroom, kitchen, in the corners of the room. In children and people with a weakened immunity, it can cause respiratory diseases and allergic reactions. For asthmatics, raw rooms are dangerous in that the prolonged presence in them provokes frequent attacks.
- Increased heat transfer. In hot summer weather, the high temperature is worse than the increased moisture in the air. The result can be overheating or a thermal blow.
It is the state of health of residents of the room that determines which humidity should be in the house. It is too high not suitable for asthmatics, allergies, small children, people with hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and immunodeficiency.
If the humidity rate indoors for a person is not observed and the air is too dry, it also damages health:
- Dry mucous membranes. It can manifest themselves itching and eye irritation, especially in people with contact lenses, a throat in the throat, an adsadd cough.
- Difficult breathing. When drying, mucous nasopharynxes do not perform their protective functions. A person becomes prone to colds and infections, nasal bleeding, chronic rhinitis, aggravation of bronchial asthma.
- Dehydration of the skin. Peeling, irritation, redness, appearance of wrinkles - all this arises against the background of the impaired hydrobalans of the skin. Especially poorly increased humidity affects people with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other dermatological diseases.
Most unpleasant symptoms appear not immediately. But if normal humidity in the apartment is missing, sooner or later, its tenants will begin to experience discomfort.
Air humidity rate in the apartment
Recommended GOST 30494-96 Air humidity in the room depending on the time of year:
- in winter - 30-45%;
- in the autumn-spring period - 30-45%;
- In summer - 30-60%.
Optimal humidity in the room for a person of different ages:
- for adults - from 40 to 60%;
- For children under 6 years old - 50-60%.
The perfect air humidity in the apartment for a person varies depending on the purpose of the room:
- in the bathroom, where the ceiling, walls and floor finishes are usually resistant to water, humidity can reach 60-70%;
- Normal humidity in the premises settled under the kitchen, corridors, pantry, - 40-60%;
- In rooms where there are plants, humidity should not be below 60-70%, for tropical and subtropical colors - up to 80-95%, so they are recommended to be taken to a balcony, loggia or to remove them a separate room;
- On the loggia or balcony, the humidity does not make sense, since this room is non-residential.
Sanpin 188.8.131.5245-10 The relative humidity for the premises is enclosed in a more hard framework and has a value of 60% in the cold season, and 65% in the summer. Some rooms are not normalized due to a non-permanent or brief stay in them, as well as frequent, and long-term change in humidity in these rooms.
|The name of a room||Air temperature, ° C||Relative humidity,%|
|Room in areas of the coldest five days (minus 31 ° C and below)||20-24.||60.|
|Kitchen||18-26||N / n *|
|Restroom||18-26||N / N.|
|Bathroom combined san. knot||18-26||N / N.|
|Lobby||14-20.||N / N.|
|Pantry||12-22.||N / N.|
* - not normalized
To increase the service life of household appliances, the preservation of books, paintings, upholstery of upholstered furniture The level of humidity should not exceed 60-65%.
Air humidity rate in child room
The optimal air humidity for the child in the apartment is determined on the basis of its age. It is especially important to comply with this parameter for newborns:
- Features of thermoregulation in babies. The more dry the air (which is inhaled), the more fluid spend the body to moisturize. Large water losses are connected with this - dryness of the nasopharynx and nasal mucosa occurs, the baby is hard to breathe. As a result, he more often wakes up at night, he eats badly, capricious.
- Long heating season. In most cities in Russia, it lasts at least 6 months a year. Central heating batteries can reduce the initial indicators of humidity indoor by 20-40% or more. The reduced humidity in the heating period is frequent respiratory diseases, chronic rhinitis, raising the risk of bronchial asthma.
Depending on the age of the child, determine which humidity should be in the bedroom. For the children of the first year of life, the optimal parameter is 50-70%, for children from 1 to 3 years - 45-65%, almost adult norms are suitable for children older than 3 years - 50%.
How to measure moisture
The relative humidity in the room is measured using special instruments - hygrometers. They have a different design and principle of operation:
- Electronic. Usually combined with thermometers to simultaneously measure the room temperature. In them, a thin layer on the inner plate is deposited by electrolyte through which the voltage passes. The indicator panel reflects the results.
- Mechanical. Cheaper and easy-to-use devices, however, can give an error in measuring up to 8%. Work without a power source, produced desktop or walls. Do not have a digital display, equipped with a dial and arrow.
There is some ways to determine the saturation of air moisture, not all of them are popular, but meet:
- Weight or absolute. It is a device that determines relative humidity by absorbing it. With the help of special tubes with chemical composition, it makes measurements. In domestic conditions are not used.
- Hair. Such a type of hygrometer is used only in laboratories, and only because its principle of operation is based on the study of human hair.
- Film Also refers to the category of laboratory devices. The main mechanism is a special film, which, depending on the level of humidity, stretches or, on the contrary, is compressed. It is most effectively used in the winter season.
- Electronic. This type of device is most often purchased for household moisture measurements. It is quite simple to use it, since the mechanism displays the end result of measurements to the touch screen immediately.
- Psychometric. The most accurate view of the moisture meter. Often it is precisely acquired to work in production, laboratory facilities. Also, many civilian users leave their choice precisely on psychometric hygrometers due to their comparative low cost and maximum accuracy.
To determine the humidity rate of air in the apartment, it will be suitable for an inexpensive mechanical hygrometer. For use in domestic purposes, certification in the metrological service is not needed.
It is important to pay attention to the temperature range of use - the maximum value of 80-120 degrees. When used in the sauna or bath, you must select the limit option.
We define moisture without instruments
You can independently not having devices to find out quite exactly the humidity of the air in the room. For this, two options will be suitable.
When measuring the first way, you need to measure the thermometer in the room in the room and write the readings. Then take a small piece of a rag or bandage, wet it and wrapped the tip of the thermometer to leave minutes to 5. Next, the calculation of the difference in the readings (from the larger time, it is necessary to use a psychrometric table.
In the second case, it is necessary to drop in a glass of water to cool it in the refrigerator to + 3 ... + 5 ° C. After that, transfer the glass into the room away from the heating devices and leave for 10 minutes. We look at the glass if:
- Glass dry. Humidity in the room is insufficient.
- On the walls there is condensate. With humidity, everything is in order.
- Big condensate and sweeps. Humidity is too high.
How to improve air humidity with household appliances
The most affordable and popular device for increasing humidity in the air is a household humidifier. It can be used all year round, but it will be especially useful in winter when the humidity of 20 percent indoors causes discomfort.
The following varieties of moisturizers are produced:
- Classic. The principle of operation of such devices is based on the evaporation of cold water without prior heating. From a special tank, water flows into the evaporator - disk, filter or cartridge. Due to the fact that such devices take air from the room and produce it after cleaning with a filter, an additional removal of dust and allergens occurs.
- Humidifiers with air purity function. These are full-fledged climatic devices, which simultaneously increase the level of humidity and purify the air due to the equipment with special replaceable filters. They are also called air sinks.
- Steam models. The principle of operation of such devices is similar to the operation of an electric kettle. Heating elements with a ceramic plate or spiral produce pairs after preheating water. It is optimally used in summer, and to comply with the norm of humidity in the apartment in the winter.
- Ultrasonic. The most expensive and efficient. The liquid poured into the tank enters the plate vibrating under the influence of ultrasound. Water decays to the smallest drops that enter the room through the cooler inside the case.
- Air humidifier with cleaning function (air washing)
- Steam humidifier
- Ultrasonic humidifier
With the help of such devices, you can not only create a comfortable humidity in the apartment, but also adjust other parameters:
- control the temperature;
- neutralize pathogenic microbes;
- Calm dust and allergens.
The operation of the humidifier can cover the different area, which must be considered when purchasing. Small household appliances are suitable for a bedroom or kitchen. For living room or other rooms, a powerful device is needed.
How to increase air humidity by folk remedies
Air humidity in a dry room can be increased with the help of people's ways:
- Regular wet cleaning;
- frequent ventilation (not per minute temperature), especially after rain;
- installation of a mini-fountain, aquarium or other water containers;
- Color breeding and regular watering;
- decrease in the intensity of the operation of heating radiators with wet towels;
- Using a pulverizer.
To raise moisture in the room, you can dry the lingerie straight indoors, and not on the balcony or street. During the preparation of food in the air also falls water vapor from boiling saucepan.
How to reduce humidity
Not always high humidity - good. If mold appears on the walls, fungus, condensate is constantly going, it must be reduced. You can use one of these ways:
- Drainers. Special devices absorbing excess water molecules, taking air from the room. The principle of operation of such a device is based on steam condensation in the room. Partially the function of the dryer performs air conditioning - it also takes water from the air.
- Good ventilation. Crashing air ducts do not cope with the function of the discharge of excess wet air from the apartment.
- Drying linen on the street or on the balcony. Hyded, fabrics give water molecules into the air, which circulates in all rooms and increases moisture.
- Sunlight. Finding into the room, it leads to evaporation of water, so it is recommended to regularly open the windows.
On some factors of increasing humidity can not be influenced:
- The more people live in the apartment, the lower this indicator will be;
- If all windows overlook the north side, there are most often damp in the rooms;
- In some cities, climatic conditions determine constant high humidity.
Determine which humidity should be in the apartment, it is possible using a domestic hygrometer. If the level is below 40%, use humidifiers or other available methods. When it exceeds 70%, it is necessary to reduce the number of sources of water evaporation (indoor flowers, aquariums, waterproofs, wet linen) or use dryers.