Lymph nodes are an important and integral part of the immune system, therefore, the correct assessment of their condition is of great importance.
Where are the lymph nodes in humans and what they need
Lymph nodes on the human body are only a small part of the immune system, but they assumed a large number of important functions. The human body is a complex self-regulating mechanism actively interacting with the environment. So, the skin and most of the human mucous membranes occurs daily with bacteria, viruses, simplest and mushrooms, while maintaining the constancy of the composition and functions of the body. This is achieved by the effective work of the immune system, which finds and destroys everything alien to the microbic organism. Sometimes at the same time there is an increase in the inflammation of lymph nodes, which attracts the attention of people.
The human body is literally permeated with lymphatic vessels, according to which almost all organs and tissues occurs the lemph is outflow - tissue fluid. In the direction of the outflow of lymphs from peripheral tissues, various pathogens can occur. Inflammation of lymph nodes occurs when the alien material enters the lymphatic assembly and is recognized by lymphocytes.
It is in lymph nodes that the recognition of foreign antigens and the launch of the adaptive component of the immune system occurs. It is important to note that in the lymph node only activation of B-cells of memory occurs, which leads to the production of antibodies specific for a particular causative agent of the disease.
The immune system authorities are presented:
- Lymph nodes and cluster of lymphoid fabric.
Regardless of where lymph nodes are located, they are represented by renal-shaped organs from the clusters of leukocytes (mainly in and T-lymphocytes), sizes from 0.3 to 2 cm long. The location of lymph nodes on the human body occurs as follows - on the path of lymphatic vessels in the direction of the thoracic and right lymphatic ducts, often near the vascular-nerve beams.
Each area in the human body has its own regional nodes. It is in their direction that the outflow of lymphs from specific organs or tissues occurs. Often the location that is occupied by lymph nodes on the human body allows them to be placed. It does not matter where lymph nodes are located - in any case, they actually perform the role of natural antimicrobial filters.
So, if you know where regional lymph nodes are located on the neck, then by their size and other parameters, you can assume the presence of chronic inflammatory processes in the initial departments of the upper respiratory tract and the rotoglot, which is often used in practice.
What if the lymph node in the child was inflamed
In 2019, scientists from the Southeast Regional Medical Center of North Carolina published data according to which lymphadenopathy (a state characterized by a change in lymph nodes) is much more common in the children's population. In addition, in more than 75% of cases, the increase in lymph nodes is local.
Many parents do not know what to do if the child inflamed lymph node. Clinically manifests:
- Palpable lumps under the jaw, on the side surfaces of the neck, in the armpit, in the groin or abdominal area;
- Pain or increased sensitivity in the field of increased lymph node;
- Redness and raising heat in this area.
However, the increase in lymph nodes rarely occurs is isolated. So, even if the child is small and can not tell the parents that he worries him, parents should pay attention to the following symptoms of the disease:
- Rubber, cough, throat pain (most often manifested when swallowing);
- Decline in appetite;
- Signs of intoxication;
- Fatigue, increased drowsiness;
- Weight loss;
- Rash on the body and mucous membranes.
Inflammation of lymph nodes in children is most often related to:
- Infection with the organism with viruses or bacteria;
- Reaction to drugs (some antibiotics and anticonvulsant drugs);
- Juvenile arthritis and diseases of the joints affecting children;
- Allergic reactions.
The reasons for changing lymph nodes can be different, but in such cases other symptoms are most often performed on the fore.
In 2014, scientists from the Medical Academy of Ankara, Turkey were published data according to which inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck in children occurs more often than in other areas of the body. This is due to the high activity of lymphoid tissue located at the entrance to the upper respiratory tract and the digestive tract. Otherwise, this cluster of lymphoid tissue is called the lymphatic pharyngeal ring.
Thus, if the child inflamed lymph node on the neck or in another area, a pediatrician should be counted. It is a specialist who can estimate the patient's condition and appoint proper and timely treatment, because you should not forget that lymphadenopathy is only one of the non-specific manifestations of the pathological process.
What lymph nodes on the body of an adult need to pay attention
In most cases, lymph nodes on the human body can tell about certain pathological processes occurring in the human body. If the lymph node was inflamed on the neck or in another area of the human body, the doctor evaluates the following parameters:
- The size;
- Changing the skin color over the lymph node;
- Sparedness with surrounding fabrics.
Most of all should be alarming lymph nodes on the human body, soldered with the surrounding tissues, as this may indicate the probability of the oncological process. In the absence of other clinical manifestations in such situations it is necessary to consult an oncologist.
When the altered lymph node is detected, its location is estimated and the localization of the main pathological process is supposed. If the cervical lymph nodes are significantly increased on both sides and other patient complaints in the patient, such diseases such as tuberculosis, infectious mononucleosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcoidosis and systemic blood disease should be eliminated.
An increase in the per capita lymph nodes is always considered pathology. An increase in the on-shifted lymph nodes on the right indicates problems with light, mediastinum or esophagus. The change in the left-screw limp lymph nodes can not only speak about the problems with the above authorities, but also be one of the first signs of the oncological damage to the stomach, ovaries in women, testicles in men and kidneys. Therefore, when signs of changes in the left-screw lymph nodes are required to consult a specialist.
In women, great attention should be paid to the lymph nodes of the axillary region. This is due to the fact that the order of 75% of lymphs from the breast is drained through them. Therefore, if the woman had a lymph node under the arm (in the axillary region), you should contact a specialist as soon as possible.
Attention should also be paid to situations where the increase in lymph nodes is not local, but systemic. In such cases, they are talking about generalized lymphadenopathy.
Many lymph nodes are not available for palpation, therefore, ultrasound and other types of research (CT, MRI) use to assess their state. However, these studies make sense to spend only after consulting with a specialist.
When there is an increase in lymph nodes on the whole body of a person
With generalized lymphadenopathy, almost all available for inspection of lymph nodes on the human body increase. Their location at the same time to determine the cause of the disease does not matter.
According to the recommendations of scientists from the University of Campbell, the United States published in 2019, if the patient has generalized lymphadenopathy and cannot establish an accurate cause of its development, additional examination should be carried out (blood tests are evaluated, CT or MRI of internal organs is being carried out).
When looking for the reasons for the systemic increase in lymph nodes, attention is paid to:
- Change in general and biochemical blood tests;
- Infection with the Epstein Barra virus, cytomegalovirus;
- Infection with toxoplasma;
- Tests for HIV infection, viral hepatitis B and C;
- Insect bite;
- List of regularly taken preparations;
- A recent visit to other countries;
- Harmful habits;
- Quality of food used.
If you cannot establish the reason for the systemic increase in lymphatic nodes, a check inspection is carried out after 1 month, after which the decision on the biopsy of one of the lymph nodes is made.
How to determine the location of lymph nodes on the human body
First of all, to properly assess the condition of lymph nodes, you need to understand where they should be assessed. Normally, a healthy person, lymph nodes rarely reaches 5 mm in length and therefore practically do not palpate. Therefore, a healthy person is determined submandibular, armpits and inguinal nodes. Sometimes after transferred diseases, increased lymph nodes decrease in size very slowly, which is not a sign of the pathological process.
To date, there is a large number of literature and illustrations on the Internet in wide access, with which you can visually explore where there are lymph nodes in a person on the head, neck and other parts of the body.
How to correctly determine the location of lymph nodes on the neck
Even if you know the exact location of lymph nodes on the neck, a healthy person will be addicted to them in despite relatively surface location in this area. With an increase in lymph nodes, this problem disappears, which is associated with the weak development of subcutaneous fatty fiber in the neck area. It is much more difficult to find deep cervical lymph nodes that are located on the border of the tape spaces of the neck.
The guidelines for the search for lymph nodes of the neck can serve as the line and angle of the lower jaw, the sub-surfactant bone, sternum-curable-bed-like muscle, an inspected pumper. When searching for lymph nodes located on the front or side surfaces of the neck, the head should be tilted by the kepened, as it reduces the tension of the fascia sites under the skin and facilitates the palpation of subcutaneous formations.
In 2014, scientists from the University Hospital of Essen, Germany, proposed to consider lymphadenopathy an increase in lymph nodes more than 1 cm. Also, depending on the duration of this phenomenon, Lymphadenopathy proposed to divide on:
- Sharp (up to 2 weeks);
- Subacute (from 2 to 6 weeks);
- Chronic (longer than 6 weeks).
The subcutaneous arrangement of lymph nodes can also make it difficult to establish the correct diagnosis. Inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck can be confused with:
- Middle and side cysts of the neck;
- Plumal saliva
How to find lymph nodes in the armpit
In the axillary region there is a large number of sebaceous glands, the inflammation of which can be confused with lymphadenitis. Incorrect treatment may cause the development of the throat of the axillary region. Thus, if the lymph node was inflamed under the arm (in the armpit), you should contact a specialist to exclude pathology. It is especially important to palpate the axillary lymph nodes to women, which should be part of regular self-examination.
To find the axillary nodes, you should repeat the following algorithm:
· Put the brush of the opposite hand into the armpit, turning the palm surface of the brush to the axillary depression;
The need to carry out such an algorithm is due to the fact that the axillary fascia is tightened when the hand is stretched and it makes it difficult to palpate the lymph nodes located under it.
What lymph nodes on the head are regional
Any study of the lymphatic system begins with the upper body departments and ends with inguinal and poning lymph nodes. This rule allows not to miss a generalized process and more reliably assess the condition of lymphatic nodes.
On the head the following lymph nodes are considered regional:
- Rear ear
- Low leisure.
The occipital lymph nodes on the head are on the path of the outflow of the tissue fluid mainly from the scalp.
Why can bother lymph node behind the ear
Lymph nodes behind the ear, or the rear ear knots are located on the way of the outflow of lymphs from the skin of the outer hearing pass, the rear surface of the ears and the rear moisteners of the head. To determine the location of these nodes, the skin is palpped at the level and slightly above the mastoid process.
Lymph node behind the ear can be increased and delivered discomfort with the following diseases:
- Outdoor otitis;
- Furuncule outdoor auditory passage;
- Furunculese of the scalp;
- Perichondritis of ear shell.
If the lymph node is not worried about, and before ear, then you should think about the pathological process in the parotid salivary gland, the temporal-mandibular joint or tear gland.
Where are the lymph nodes on the neck and when inflammation of which organs people notice them
Knowing where the lymph nodes in a person are located on the neck, it is easy to assume that the pathological process is concentrated in which organs. Often, patients may have an increase in several groups of lymphatic nodes. Often this is due to the fact that they are parts of one lymphatic system and are on the path of the tissue fluid.
The main lymph nodes on the neck have a certain location and collect lymphs from the following organs:
- Subband - from the language, lips, mucous membranes of the oral cavity and conjunctiva;
- Chin - from the bottom lip and the rotogling;
- Jugular - from language, almonds, parotid salivary gland;
- Rear cervical - from the skin of the back surface of the skin and the scalp.
The inflammation of lymph nodes on the neck can also be caused by problems with the teeth of the lower jaw (caries, pulpit, cysts on the roots of the teeth). In such situations, a dentist is needed.
What if the lymph node was inflamed on the neck or head
An isolated increase in lymph nodes, without other clinical manifestations, regardless of where lymph nodes are rarely found. Much more often the patient also worried pain, discomfort and other unpleasant symptoms associated with inflammation in the body area, from which Lymph is subject to. Therefore, if the lymph node was inflated on his head or neck, it should be referred to to that specialist who specializes in the treatment of this area. So, the pathology of the paroles and teeth is engaged in a maxillofacial surgeon, while the otorinolaryngologist is engaged in the problems of the nose, pharynx and ear.
What to do if the lymph node was inflamed (in the axillary depression)
If the patient inflamed lymph nodes under the arm (in the armpit depression), you should contact the surgeon to eliminate the furunculose. If you suspect a more serious pathology, the surgeon will appoint the necessary research and will identify the diagnosis.
When the inguinal lymph nodes can bother
In 2014, scientists from the Department of Surgery Tehran Medical University, Iran, it was suggested that the inguinal lymph nodes were increased only when their size exceeds 1.5 cm. The reasons why lymph nodes in groin can be increased, may be associated with:
- inflammatory changes in zones for which these nodes are regional;
- generalized lymphadenopathy (infectious mononucleosis, tuberculosis, HIV);
- oncological processes.
Inguinal lymph nodes are regional for:
- Male and female genital organs;
- Skin of the groin area;
- The berry region;
- Lower departments of the abdominal wall;
- Lower departments of peritoneum;
- The lower parts of the anal canal.
Often, inguinal lymph nodes increase in sexually transmitted infections. In such situations, the patient more often draws attention to the defeat of the urogenital system, while the lymph nodes are only an indirect sign of pathology.
What needs to differentiate enlarged lymph nodes in groin
In order to assess lymph nodes in groin, you should put a hand in the area of the femoral triangle, below the groove bundle. In the norm of lymph nodes, elastic, movable, up to 1.5 cm in diameter.
In some people in the scam canal area, groin or femoral hernia can be formed. This will determine the elastic protrusion in the region of the groin fold. A differential diagnosis between lymph nodes in groin and other pathologies helps ultrasound examination.
Is there a term "cancer lymph nodes"
Sometimes on the Internet you can meet such a thing as "Lymph nodes" cancer. Under cancer, people understand malignant neoplasms, aggressive growth that is often accompanied by the destruction of the surrounding tissues and the formation of metastases.
However, in itself, the concept of "Lymph nodes" cancer is erroneously, since lymph nodes are only part of the immune system, which is trying to destroy the tumor. As a rule, in malignant neoplasms, the relationship between the changed cells is disturbed, which leads to the spread of tumor parts throughout the body.
It is precisely the formation of metastases when cancer in regional lymph nodes often becomes one of the first signs of the disease. In addition, depending on the amount of metastasis, the volume of treatment and the forecast for further recovery is determined.
Used photographic materials shutterstock
Information from this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic studies should appoint only the attending physician. To make a diagnosis and proper appointment of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.
An increase in lymph nodes - the causes of the appearance, under what diseases, diagnosis and treatment methods occur.
Lymph nodes are small biological filters related to the lymphatic system. Their main function is the protection of the body. The lymph nodes passes through themselves the lymph flow and pathogens are delayed in their structures that are destroyed by protective cells - lymphocytes.
Under the scope of lymph nodes there are bacteria, tumor cells and toxic substances.
What are lymphatic nodes? These are small clusters of lymphoid fabric located on a connective tissue frame.
Lymphoid fabric is a pool of cells that participate in the destruction of damaged and tumor cells and microorganisms.
An increase in lymph nodes can be a symptom of both light infectious disease and serious pathology, which can lead to a severe outcome. Therefore, in all cases, the increase in lymph nodes should be consulted for a doctor for diagnosing and finding out the cause.
Depending on the localization, the following groups of lymphatic nodes are distinguished:
- Included and connective;
The doctor during inspection palprates (feelings) lymph nodes and determines their size, structure, soreness, skin change over the lymph node.
Causes of increasing lymph nodes
An increase in lymph nodes indicates a pathological process. An isolated increase in lymph node, or generalized lymphadenopathy directly depends on the cause underlying the disease.
Most cases of increasing lymph nodes are temporary.
The reasons for the increase in lymph nodes serve:
- infectious processes;
- autoimmune diseases;
- Tumor pathology;
- accumulation diseases (a group of diseases accompanied by a metabolic violation).
Lymphatic nodes are involved in the formation of immunity, and in any infectious process, the division of cells protecting the body is activated in them.
So, with brucellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, diphtheria bacteria can settle in lymph nodes, causing their inflammation. At the same time, lymph nodes increase in the amount of the enhanced luminary inflows and blood.
Most often, lymphatic nodes increase with acute infections of the upper respiratory tract. Among them, the greatest size of lymph nodes acquire when Tonnsillite (sore).
Painful increase in lymph nodes can be a sign Diseases of feline scratching (From the name it is clear that the disease occurs in people scratched with a cat). The cause of the inflammatory process is Bartonella Henselae bacterium.
One of the bright examples of viral disease, accompanied by a significant increase in lymph nodes, is Infectious mononucleosis . The disease causes the Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.
Infectious mononucleosis is more common in childhood and young age. In addition to increasing lymph nodes, it is characterized by an increase in body temperature, weakness and sore throat.
In children, generalized lymphadenopathy occurs when Children's infectious diseases , such as measles, rubella, vapotitis, chickenpox.
Among other viral diseases accompanied by lymphadenopathy, it is worth noting HIV infection .
Lymphadenopathy in HIV infection accompanions a number of symptoms: body weight loss, inexplicable fever, night sweating, fatigue, and later infectious diseases (Herpes, cytomegalovirus infection, candidiasis).
Systemic (autoimmune) connecting tissue disease , such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic red lupus can be accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes. With these states, there is a violation of the recognition of "other people" and "its" proteins, as a result of which the body begins to attack its cells. If the process passes actively, the lymph nodes increase in the amount due to the increasing load.
Often, autoimmune diseases are accompanied by an increase in the spleen and additional symptoms.
With systemic red lupus, skin, kidneys and serous envelopes of internal organs are affected (lupus pleurites, serososites arise). During rheumatoid arthritis, articular cartilage is predominantly affected.
An increase in lymph nodes may be a symptom of progression tumor process in organism. Atypical (tumor) cells migrate into lymph nodes, get stuck in them, multiply and stretch the node with their mass.
Separately, it is worth allocating a group of malignant neoplasms affecting the lymphatic system directly.
- Lymphoma Hodgkin , or lymphogranulomatosis It occurs with the formation of conglomerates from affected immature lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen.
- Non-Hodgkinsky lymphoma - A group of lymphoproliferative diseases.
Increased lymph nodes can be a symptom disease accumulation : Some substance as a result of the metabolic disorder accumulates in organs and tissues, including lymph nodes. Among such diseases: hemochromatosis (iron accumulation), Vilson-Konovalov disease (copper accumulation) and other hereditary exchange disorders.
Allergic reactions Sometimes lead to an increase in lymph nodes. Hypersensitivity кSome Medicines leads to generalized lymphadenopathy.
Among endocrinological diseases Hyperthyroidism It can be characterized by lymphadenopathy, an increase in the spleen and an increase in the content of lymphocytes in the blood. In the treatment, all indicators are returned to normal.
It is worth remembering that the whole lymph is going through the lymph nodes, and if a person is engaged in severe physical labor, the elbow and popliteal lymph nodes can be increased due to Large load .
Also lymph nodes in rare cases increase after Vaccinations on the appropriate side.
What do doctors contact with the increase in lymph nodes?
Adult should turn toDoctor-therapist.
, and the child and teen inspectpediatrician
. Depending on the accompanying symptoms, consultation of the following specialists may be required:Diagnosis and examination with increasing lymph nodes
- Clinical blood test;
The structure of the lymphatic node.
Lymph node (lymphousel ) - The peripheral organ of the lymphatic system performing the function of a biological filter through which the lymph flows from the organs and parts of the body. In the human body, about 150 groups of lymph nodes are called regional.
Anatomy and physiology
The structure of the lymphatic node and the flowlymphs
Through lymphatic sines.
The lymph nodes are the formation of a rounded, oval, beobovo-shaped, less often a ribbon form with dimensions from 0.5 to 50 mm and more. Lymph nodes are painted in pinkish gray. The lymph nodes are located in the course of lymphatic vessels, as a rule, clusters to ten pieces, near blood vessels, more often - near large veins.
The surface of the lymph node is covered with a connective tissue capsule, from which trabecules are deployed inside the node - beams, also formed by the connective tissue. They are supporting structures. Strom - The base of the lymphatic assembly is formed by a reticular connective tissue, the process cells of which and the reticular fibers formed by them form a three-dimensional network. The composition of the stroma also includes phagocytic cells - macrophages presented in lymph nodes with several varieties.
On the context of the organ there are two main zones. Closer to the capsule - the cortical substance in which the surface part is distinguished and the deep cortex zone (parakhatical zone). The inner part of the lymphatic node was named the brainstant.
The internal space of the organ contains the clusters of lymphoid tissue. In the area of the surface cortex, the lymphatic nodules (follicles) are closer to the capsule. On painted preparations, they have a lighter central part - a germinative center, in which antigen-dependent proliferation and the differentiation of B-lymphocytes (besse-dependent zone) occurs. Surface, darker on the preparations part of the nodal - the lymphoid crown contains a large number of small, tightly arranged lymphocytes.
In the deep bark zone (parakortic zone), lymphocytes are located tightly, quite evenly. T-lymphocytes are dominated in this area, which take place an antigen-dependent proliferation and differentiation (thymus-dependent zone).
In the cerebral substance, the clusters of lymphoid tissue are represented by brainagery (pulp cords), which migrate B-lymphocytes from the surface cortex. B-lymphocytes are differently differentiated into plasma cells producing immunoglobulins - antibodies.
Lymph flows to the lymph nodes by bringing the lymphatic vessels suitable to the node with a convex side, and reaches the ongoing lymphatic vessel to extend from the concave side of the node in the area of the gate. Inside the Lymph node, slowly proceeds (seeps) on internal spaces, which are called lymphatic sinus. Sinuses are located between the capsule, trabecules and clusters of lymphoid tissue. Like vessels, sinuses have their own diligence formed by littoral (coastal) cells. Their processes are directed inside the sinus, where they are in contact with the spectacular cells. Thus, in contrast to the vessels, the sinuses do not have a free cavity, it is overclosed by a three-dimensional network formed by reticular and litamial cells, thanks to this lymph, slowly seeps on sines. This contributes to its purification from foreign particles due to macrophages, which are located along the edge of lymphoid clusters. The lymph brainstabs proceedings are enriched with antibodies that are produced by plasma cerebral cells.
The flowing lymph brings foreign antigens into the lymphatic assembly, which leads to the development of immune response reactions in the lymph nodes. Depending on the nature of the antigens, these reactions are developing mainly in Bursa or thymus-dependent zones, which leads to an increase in the size of the lymphoid clusters of these zones.
Lymph node is a barrier to distribute both infections and cancer cells. It produces lymphocytes - protective cells that are actively involved in the destruction of alien substances and cells.
Group of lymph nodes.
There are several groups of lymphatic nodes. These groups are located in such a way as to become a barrier on the way in infection and cancer. Thus, lymph nodes are located in the elbow bending, the armpit depression, in the knee, as well as the groin area. Neck lymph nodes provide protection against infections and tumors of heads and organs located in the neck area. A huge number of lymph nodes is in the abdominal and thoracic cavity. Lymphocapillars permeate organs as well as surface tissues. Lymph nodes, located in the course of blood vessels, perform the same functions.
The figure shows the following groups of lymph nodes (from top to bottom):
- Waltera Ring (Waldeyer Ring) (Harness),
- cervical lymph nodes (Cervical),
- Included (supraclavolarlar),
- Occipital (Occipital),
- front ear (preauricular)
- Connected (InfraclavoLAR),
- axillary (axillar),
- chest (pectoral),
- Intragretic, mediastinal (mediastinal),
- Bronchopulmonal (Hilar),
- Elbow (Epitrochlear and Brachial),
- Paraoortic (Paraaortic),
- Mesenteric (mesenter) (mesenter)
- iliac (ILIAC: general, internal and external)
- Inguinal (Inginal: Deep and Surface),
- femoral (femoral),
- Podlite (popliteal).
Increased lymph nodes in infectious diseases
An increase in lymph nodes indicates disadvantaged in the zone that the node "serves". Most often, the increase in lymph node is associated with infection, less often it is a consequence of tumor lesion.
- In purulent processes, as a rule, acute lymphadenitis occurs - inflammation of the lymphatic node. The inflammatory process arises due to microbes from the RAS, located in the "service area" of lymph node. The main manifestation is the increase in lymph node, the appearance of pain in its feeling. In the event of a purulent process over the lymphatic node, the skin can be blic. If at this moment the cavity is not opened, the lymph node sheath is broken and the pus penetrates the surrounding tissues. There is a severe complication of lymphadenitis - phlegmon.
- In children, the increase in lymph nodes with tuberculosis is one of the characteristic manifestations of infection. Most often the lymph nodes of the chest cavity increase. It is less likely to increase the neck lymph nodes (people called "gold").
- Often, the cause of the increase in lymph node in children is a caustic scratch disease. The causative agent of this infection is a microbe called Barthorell. Bacteria carriers are cats. From scratching microbes apply to lymphatic vessels and fall into lymph nodes, which increase and become painful. Announced purulent wound and an enlarged nearby lymphatic node should always make a feline scratch disease, as a cause of such a state.
- With sharp respiratory viral infections (ARVI), children may have an increase in several groups of lymph nodes. This is a consequence of the redundant response of the immune system to the invasion of the viruses. As a rule, lymph nodes in such cases increase slightly and when they feel painful.
- In venereal diseases, in particular during syphilis, an increase in the lymph node, as a rule, in the groin region, precedes the occurrence of ulcers on the genital organs - solid Shankra. Unlike other infectious diseases during syphilis, an enlarged lymph node may be painless.
- A long-term increase in several groups of lymphatic nodes may indicate such diseases such as brucellosis, lesteriosis, mononucleosis, as well as HIV infection.
Increased lymph nodes in tumor diseases
The tumor lesion of lymph nodes may be a consequence of both lymphoproliferative diseases, when initially the tumor proceeds from the lymph node and the consequence of the metastatic lesion. The lymphoproliferative diseases include, above all, lymphogranulomatosis and lymphosarcomas. Lymph nodes with these diseases increase to 3-4 cm, and sometimes more, and they become dense. When feeling such lymph nodes are painless. Upon initial increase in intragenic and intra-paint lymph nodes, lymphoproliferative diseases can not be recognized immediately.
A. G. Rakhmanova, V. K. Prigzhkin, V. A. Neverov. Infectious diseases. Guide for general practitioners. Moscow-St Petersburg, 1995.
Increased lymph nodes can be adopted under the skin in the form of cones or peas, which often happens when cold. However, there are other reasons leading to an increase in lymph nodes. Some of them require a compulsory appeal to the doctor.
Lymph nodes are part of the immune system and contain leukocytes - body defensive cells. Nodes are located in groups of several dozen, less often - single and interconnected lymphatic vessels. Usually, lymph nodes are tested under the chin or on the neck, in armpits or groin, in elbow or fallen seals - in these places they are unlucky under the skin. The main clusters of lymph nodes available for self-examination you can consider in the figure.
Through the lymph nodes, as through the filter, the interstitial liquid flows from the internal organs and skin. Lymph nodes delay and neutralize the pathogens of infections (bacteria, viruses, mushrooms and protozoa), alien particles that have fallen into the body, as well as damaged cells (including cancer).
The normal dimensions of lymph nodes can vary greatly depending on their location in the body, the age of the person, the state of immunity, the amount of transferred diseases, the genus of classes and individual characteristics. For example, lymph nodes on the neck or under the lower jaw can always be forgiven. And the nodes that are in the elbow bending or a popliteate jamb usually so small that find them difficult.
During infectious infection or disease, lymph nodes may increase by several centimeters and more. The medical name of this phenomenon is lymphadenopathy. With a rapid increase in dimensions, soreness occurs when the lymph node is tested. In most cases, these symptoms are not dangerous and pass within a few days, but sometimes require treatment.
Anxious signs that should always be alarmed are the following changes in lymph nodes:
- The node remains enlarged during
- several weeks;
- Increased lymph nodes with only one
- an increase in several groups of lymphatic
- nodes immediately (for example, cervical and inguinal);
- Lymphadenopathy is the only symptom
- There are no other signs of illness;
The node loses elasticity and becomes hard to touch;
It seems that the knot is spanned with surrounding fabrics,
It is impossible to accurately determine its borders;
It is difficult to move the skin over lymph node;
- The skin over the node changes the color, becomes hot, an ulcer appears. In these cases, be sure to refer to the therapist.
- Increased lymph nodes in children and adults in various diseases A sharp pain and an increase in the size of one lymph node is usually a sign of its inflammation - lymphadenitis. The cause of lymphadenitis are bacteria that have fallen into the lymphatic node. This happens, for example, when trying to squeeze acne (acne), guns on the skin, and others. More often, lymphadenitis takes place for several days independently, but sometimes hazardous complications are developing: the suppuration of the node, the injection of infection in the blood and the spread of it in the body. Therefore, with a pronounced pain of the lymphatic assembly, an increase in its size and general ailment is desirable to refer to the therapist.
- The most common cause of an increase in the group of lymph nodes in one part of the body is local infection. For example: Increased lymph nodes near the ears on the neck, under the lower jaw
It often happens with a cold, flu, outdoor or middle otitis, angina, sinusitis.
An increase in lymph nodes of the armpit It may indicate a wound or postoperative seam on hand. Lymphadenopathy by the armpit in a nursing woman with the symptoms of the stagnation of milk can talk about the development of mastitis. Lymph nodes in groin
Take the lymphatic fluid from the genitals, lower limbs and follow the order in these areas, therefore increase with sexual infections.
- As a rule, an increase in lymph nodes in all these cases is not the main complaint, since more vivid symptoms turn out to be: an increase in temperature, pain, pronounced general ailment. If cured the main disease, the lymph nodes will decrease to the usual dimensions.
- A rare, but very dangerous reason for the increase in individual lymph nodes is cancer. For example, with malignant tumors of the abdomen often occur
- Increased probacular lymph nodes
- . The reason is that it is the lymph nodes that take over the first blow during the breakdown of the tumor and the development of metastases. The first cancer cells are settled in the nearest nodes closest to the tumor, making them hard as a stone. Metastases affected by metastases are usually increased by one side of the body. When solid painless education is detected under the skin, paved with surrounding tissues, contact an oncologist.
A little less often is common or general lymphadenopathy, when several or all groups of lymph nodes in the body increase. This happens when:
Measles, rubella, adenoviral infection, infectious mononucleosis, HIV infection, hepatitis B and hepatitis C and some other viral diseases.
Chlamydia, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, borreliosis and other bacterial or parasitic infections. Many of them can be infected abroad, with the use of poorly treated meat of wild animals or if the tick bit.
Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and other autoimmune diseases - diseases when the work of the immune system and the body turns out its own cells and tissues.
Leukemia and lymphomas - malignant blood and lymphatic diseases. The remaining symptoms can be non-specific and manifest itself insignificant: fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite and weight, fast fatigue, frequent colds. In this case, contact the hematologist.