Socialization and education of your four-legged friend should be dealt with from the early childhood of the pet, since at this age the dog is more focused on its owner and it will be much easier to teach it all that is necessary.
Today we will talk specifically about, or rather, about teaching the dog the basic commands.
Basic commands include such actions as: "Sit", "Fu", "To me", "Aport", "Near", "Place", "Stand", "Lie down", "Walk", "Wait" , "Barrier", "Voice" and "Give Back". But this time we will analyze only the first six commands from this list. Let's get started.
What is training for?
Well, to begin with, knowing certain commands can save a dog's life. For example, let's take a situation when a dog trained with the necessary commands, together with its owner, approaches a highway along which cars are driven. The person orders his pet to be in place and wait for a safe moment. Pesel, instead of throwing himself under the cars, obeys his master and quite calmly stands next to them. And everyone is safe and sound.
An equally good reason to teach your dog basic commands (no matter how lazy it is) is the fact that you will know that your dog is well-mannered and socialized, and therefore will not rush at strangers and at yourself.
Well, in everyday things, knowing the commands from the dog's side can be very useful, for example, when the dog needs to brush his teeth, and as soon as you voice the command "Sit" to it, you can start the procedure.
What you need for training:
1. Honorable Mention
2. A hungry dog, ready to do anything for food :)
And we'll start with the command ..
Teaching a dog this command is simple: press on its bottom, thereby forcing the animal to sit down, make sure that the dog maintains this position for a few seconds, then give your pet a treat and voice the command. Do this with the dog several times a day, until the animal begins to sit down on command, but without handouts.
If you and your pet learn this command, then be sure that you can always stop the dog's wrong or even dangerous actions.
To teach your dog the "Fu" command, go for a walk with it to a place where there are many forbidden objects for the dog, in other words - a lot of garbage. Wait until the dog begins to examine the spoiled waste, and then stop this disgrace by strictly saying "Fu"! You can tug on the leash lightly. After several such "exercises" the dog will understand that he will have to break with the study of the garbage.
Watch your dog carefully so that he does not inadvertently swallow his "trash find".
3. "To me"
You will need another person to master this command. Ask him to hold your dog, while you yourself move a little forward. Show your dog the food (although this is not required), then give a sign to your friend to release the pet. If he runs up to you, praise him, give him the treat and do not forget to voice the command. We repeat several times, gradually moving away from our dog more and more distance.
There is also a normative option, during which the dog must go up to his man, go around him and stand on his left hand. To "saddle" this command, you need to call the dog to you in the same way as the one mentioned in the above paragraph. After that, use a treat to invite the dog to go around you and stop on the left side. When the dog stops, give it food. You may be confused at first, but it will get easier over time.
Show your dog a stick or toy while pretending to be playing. When the dog also begins to show interest in the subject, drop it by vocalizing the command. When the dog brings you its prey, be sure to praise it.
If the dog is not interested in the toy, you will have to use another training option. You need to throw the toy and point it to the dog. To get her interested, you can show your pet a treat, as if offering him a mutually beneficial exchange. When the pet brings the item, give it the yummy.
It is very important to voice the command first, and only then to throw the toy.
You can take the item that it brought you from the dog only after giving the "Give" command. How to teach this skill to a dog - see below.
To learn this skill, we need a game rope. Wave them in front of the dog, and when she grabs him, strictly say "Give". As soon as the dog gives you the toy, actively praise it for it. If this does not happen, we begin to quietly shake the pet, in extreme cases - slightly open the animal's jaws. We continue to voice the command all this time, and we do this until the dog gives the toy back.
Fuh, sorted out with toys and objects. But what about the dog bowl? After all, it happens that a dog does not allow touching its food at all. In this case, you should first practice the same skill as with the rope, only this time using a large treat, for example, a pig's ear from a pet store. When the dog is calm and without aggression to give you the treat, start working with the dog's bowl. This is best done when the dog finishes his daily meal. As usual, voice the command, take the bowl from the dog, and compensate for it with a treat. gradually, the delicacy can be removed.
It is better to study this command with a dog at its age of 6-7 months.
Take the dog by the leash and start moving. Now, while vocalizing the command, use the tension on the leash to force the pet into a position next to you. We make sure that the dog does not twitch and does not pull on the leash. If she has walked well even the shortest distance - we praise and treat.
Well, after the dog has learned to calmly pace next to you on a leash, you can start training without this item of ammunition. To do this, simply tell the dog to walk "beside" when he is off the leash.
Give the command in a calm, not angry voice, otherwise the dog will perceive the step next to you as a punishment.
Well, that's all!
Hope you enjoyed it.
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The comfortable coexistence of man and dog in the modern world cannot be imagined without the latter knowing the basic commands. This is especially true for urban residents. The pet must be manageable and obedient. This article will provide complete information on how to teach the dog commands yourself.
Why train an animal
All newly-made owners of four-legged friends face this question. The answer is simple - the animal must be easy to control. There are rules on the streets of the city that everyone must follow.
The dog should not show aggression towards strangers and their animals. Excessive friendliness and an obsessive desire to get to know each other is also not welcome.
Attention! Ideally, the urban animal should remain neutral and disinterested.
List of commands for dog training
When starting training, the owners ask themselves what commands the dog should know. They are conventionally divided into basic and additional. The basic ones include those without which it is difficult to imagine a comfortable existence.
The list of standard ones is as follows:
- to me;
- a place;
The second type is additional. They are also called circus. These include various tricks, the study of which is not necessary, but possible for general development. Among them: the command "serve" for dogs, "whirl", "bow", "catch", "give a paw" and others.
General principles of animal training
Training is a complex issue that requires a thorough approach. Incorrectly chosen methods of education can prevent the establishment of contact between a person and a pet, or completely discourage the animal from working with the owner.
Attention! Keep in mind that every dog is different, and do not hope that the methods that worked with one will work for the other.
List of general principles of training:
- Regularity and systematization of training.
- Correct timing. The timing for training with puppies and adult dogs will be discussed in detail below.
- The easiest commands are studied first, then the complex ones.
Features of training a puppy
Bringing a baby into the house, many owners understand that they need to accustom him to the rules of life from the cradle. But not everyone knows how to teach a puppy commands or tame to go to the litter box.
Additional Information! At first, it is better to start training in an apartment, in a familiar environment. This will avoid external stimuli that would distract the puppy outside.
The next question is timing. The lesson should be divided into five minutes. Five minutes of training alternates with five minutes of play. This is a very important aspect because it is difficult for puppies to concentrate on something for a long time.
Regardless of whether the puppy is working for food or a toy, a correctly completed assignment should be secured by rewarding, coupled with stormy praise from the owner. It is necessary not only to pronounce it, but also to assign a certain gesture to it.
The main thing is to remember that this is a puppy, and you should not demand too much from him. The main task of training a puppy is not so much learning the commands as in establishing contact.
Features of training an adult
Training an adult dog is not always easier than training a puppy. Lesson time can be increased. If we are talking about a pet that has good contact with the owner, the training process will not be difficult. Often, the dogs themselves offer interesting options for instructions.
An important feature of training an adult dog is the consolidation and repetition of the material. As a rule, dogs quickly understand the meaning of words, and even do what is required. But they forget just as quickly as they did the command a few days ago. To avoid this, you must regularly review the material covered for at least a month.
General training course
This discipline (OKD) is recommended for study by all pets, regardless of breed. It is not necessary to pass the OKD exam, but the study of the basic commands is necessary for a comfortable life (see the paragraph "Why train an animal").
How to teach your dog "Fu!" and "no"
Prohibiting is difficult, but necessary. You should not start studying these instructions in the first weeks of life together, since their fulfillment is difficult for the dog. Especially difficult "fu" is given to Labradors and Huskies, who love to pick up everything.
To master the skill, you need to choose a route 100-150 meters long, in a quiet place without external stimuli. Along the way, you need to lay out the treats in advance so that the dog will definitely stumble upon them (but not in a row).
When everything is ready, the owner and the pet begin to move on a medium-length leash. When the dog reaches for the first treat it finds, you need to pull up the leash and clearly say "fu!" or "you can't". After walking a couple more meters, the dog needs to be praised.
Important! Do not jerk the animal strongly. The tugging should be gentle so that the animal becomes uncomfortable, but in no case painful.
As soon as the pet understands what is required of him, the skill should be consolidated. After that, you can complicate the task - choose more crowded routes, increase the length of the leash and the number of scattered delicacies.
How to teach a dog the command "Come to me"
It is not so difficult to train the calling. You need to remember the basic rules that will help to ensure the call of the pet from any distance:
- It is necessary to call the dog, and not to lure. When it sounds "to me", the owner should not have delicacies or toys in his hands. Otherwise, the animal will get used to resorting only when it is beneficial to it.
- After the call comes praise, then reward.
- You cannot call an animal to punish it. Having done this once, the owner runs the risk of permanently losing confidence that it will run up on a signal.
Training should start from a small distance - just a couple of meters. When the pet realizes that you need to run up to the owner by order, you should explain to him that you can only run away with permission. When these skills are consolidated, you can increase the calling distance, as well as add external stimuli.
Small dogs such as York, Jack Russell, Russian Toy or Pomeranian, due to their temperament, this command is more difficult, so it must be fixed especially carefully.
Commands "stand", "lie down", "sit"
The most easy-to-learn orders, with which it is recommended to start training. The owner only needs to take the treat in his hand and direct the dog's movements with it. From a hand lowered to the floor, the pet will get a treat, and in the process it will lie down. To make the dog sit down, you just need to hold the treat at the level of his nose. And in order for him to get up, from the "sitting" or "lying" position, you need to remove the hand with the treat a little forward. After correct execution, the order is consolidated.
How to teach a dog the command "place"
Teaching a pet to go to its place is not difficult. The same team will make household chores easier. To teach the dog this, it is necessary to say "place" and lure him into a house or aviary with a delicacy. When the animal passes to its place, you need to praise it. The completion of the task is fixed.
Additional Information! Due to the slowness of the command "to the place" is not always performed well by the Great Dane. You need to be patient.
How to teach a dog to command "near"
Many owners are worried about how to train a dog not to pull the leash on the street. In order for her to be able to walk calmly on a leash, you will need to teach her to execute the command "beside".
For this, the pet is taken on a leash and begins to move in a straight line. The owner has a delicacy in his hand, which he holds right at the animal's nose. You need to praise the dog for every 10-15 meters passed without tension on the leash. In this case, the owner is prohibited from adjusting to the pace of movement of the dog.
Gradually, the hand with the treat is removed, and the interval between the praise increases. Learning to walk alongside will make the walk easier.
How to teach the command "aport"
To learn this command, you will need a toy that your dog loves very much. First, it is necessary to arouse her interest in the aporting object - to play with her in "pulling", while constantly repeating the word "aport". It is necessary to ensure that the dog wants to take the object from the owner and hold it.
After that, the aporter object is given to the dog in the teeth for just a couple of seconds, and the command "give" is immediately given. This moment must be carefully worked out, gradually increasing the holding time of the object in the teeth. The animal must remember that the object must be given only on command.
The next stage - the pet is seated and an object is thrown nearby. It is important to hold it in place until the command to "pull" is given. When the command has sounded, the animal runs after the object. As soon as it took him in the teeth, the command "to me" is given, then - "give." The completed skill is fixed.
How to teach the command "voice"
It is not at all difficult for a dog to learn to bark on command. To do this, you need to show him what he wants to get (a toy or a treat), and not give her what he wants. In this case, the object must be in the field of view of the animal, and the closer the better. If we are talking about a large animal, then you can tie it to the trunk of a tree and keep the object out of reach. When it starts to bark, speak "voice" and encourage.
It is better to start the study of the commands from the course of the protective guard service with a dog handler. It is important to understand that the dog does not rush at a person, but a special sleeve. The principle is similar to the study of the signal "aport" - it is played on the sleeve, after which it is lowered and allowed to grab before giving the command "no!" German shepherds are especially good at ZKD.
The dog can be trained to look for objects by smell. This is possible provided that he is familiar with the smell of the desired object in advance (the stronger it is, the better).
First, the dog is given a sniff of the object (the smell should be pleasant), then distracted and hidden very close. The command "seek" is given. When he has found what is hidden, the fulfillment is reinforced with praise and goodies. Gradually, the distance at which the object is hidden increases.
Important! It is not recommended to give items with different smells.
A dog's brain requires information, so these tricks can be learned for general development:
- bunny (serve);
- give your paw;
- crab move;
- hide and seek;
- show me your tongue;
- jump, etc.
There are many interesting tricks that both mongrels and purebred dogs are equally predisposed to master. The main thing to remember is that the dog is first of all a friend of man. Training is not coercion, but a great way to spend time together and a vital skill.
Parenting a dog is a lengthy and consistent process that needs to be started from puppyhood. Training allows you to adjust the behavior of the animal, make it predictable and manageable. Training requires a lot of effort and time, but the result justifies all the costs. Such interaction improves the social life of the pet - you can take it with you on walks without fear of causing inconvenience to others, and intellectual loads have a beneficial effect on the overall development of the body. There are different methods and techniques of training, in this article we will look at simple ways to teach a dog commands.
How to start teaching your dog commands
It is recommended to teach puppy commands from a very early age, when the dog comes into active contact with the owner. Depending on the breed, this is 4-6 months, but adults can also correct their behavior - this will take more time. Before starting classes get all the necessary vaccinations , check the puppy's health (hearing , vision and coordination). Cynologists recommend to achieve contact of the dog, reaction to his name - this will simplify interaction with the animal during training.
Teaching teams is recommended from the games and the feeding process. It should be ensured that the puppy perceives its name well, responds to it when exposed to any stimuli. In addition, you need to teach your pet to be comfortable. perceive a collar and leash ... You can put on ammunition from a very young age, so that the animal begins to get used to the process.
Establishing contact with your pet while feeding is a simple starting exercise. To do this, you need to pour food into the bowl, do not let the dog go to it. To achieve, until she looks in the eyes, eye contact should be at least 5 seconds. Then let your pet go to food. After teaching the command to sit, this process can be made more difficult by sitting the dog at some distance from the bowl.
Before starting active training, the dog should be taught to react to the name against the background of smells and sounds on the street, calmly endure walking on a leash. After the routine vaccination of the puppy, you can start going for walks. A short leash should be used, with the help of which it is easier to achieve contact and control.
If your pet loves active games and there is a playground with a fence, it is useful to use a ball outside. Your task is to throw the ball, while the dog must return to you. No need to worry if the puppy does not give up the toy at first, the main task at this stage is to teach the dog to respond to your voice, to return. You should start training classic commands when you learn to quickly find contact with your pet - this increases the effectiveness of training.
Features of training an adult dog
Correction of behavior and training of an adult animal is more difficult than a puppy. The dog has a well-established psyche, fixed patterns of behavior that are problematic to correct. On average, it takes from 3 months to a year to learn basic commands for an adult dog. It takes patience and a lot of time. Features:
- identify the temperament of the animal, depending on this, adjust the teaching methods;
- try not to show negative emotions;
- do not make sudden movements if the dog is inclined to show aggression;
- talking to the dog while working;
- find a suitable treat;
- alternate exercises, change the location for walking.
The fastest way to train an adult dog is to use physical methods of training (the reaction is developed to physical influences), the use of ESHO.
However, an electric collar is difficult to handle (it is easy for a dog to hurt), it cannot be used without the supervision of a dog handler.
Features of training a puppy
Teaching your puppy new commands is a real pleasure. A young dog learns quickly and tries to please its owner in everything. In addition, the reproductive system has not yet been fully formed, so there are no unnecessary stimuli in the form of hormones, reactions to an individual of the opposite sex.
Cynologists recommend first teaching the puppy the command to "sit"; it takes no more than 10 repetitions to master it, provided there is correct reinforcement. After that, you can move on to more complex commands. When working with a young dog, training time should be limited, exercises, games and rest should be alternated - puppies get tired quickly.
It is highly discouraged to use aggressive and physical methods of influence, almost all exercises can be mastered with the help of only positive reinforcement.
Prepare in advance for dog training sessions to maximize the effectiveness of the exercise. You may need:
- Collar. Required to control the leash and also gives symbolic power. Collar height may vary depending on the breed. He should not rub the coat, cause discomfort.
- Leash. It is necessary for the control and management of the animal. The length of the leash for training should be no more than 2 m.
- A stranglehold or ring. Recommended for training with adult animals as part of a physical training approach. It is better to purchase models with a retainer, they allow you to attach a stranglehold on the desired part of the neck.
- Treats. The choice depends on your taste preferences. This should be the food your pet reacts best to. It is advisable to use wet pieces so that the animal does not choke during work. For easy storage and carrying, you can use a belt bag.
In addition, several toys should be purchased to train your dog. An arabic ball, puller, and regular rope work best.
Teaching the dog basic commands
Even if you are not planning to take the General Curriculum Training (GCA) exam, your dog should be taught basic commands. They simplify interaction with a pet at home and outdoors, provide maximum control over the animal. Below is a complete list of classic commands for the complete education of any dog.
Simple command, which can be taught even a puppy from 1.5 months. When the dog is hungry, take the food in your hand and let it smell. Raise food over the head of the pet so that he can see it, but cannot reach it. With the help of a light movement on the croup, sit on your hind legs, wait a few seconds and pronounce the word "sit" clearly. Repeat the algorithm 3-5 times, let it rest. The command will be considered learned when the dog learns to sit down one word at a time, looking into the owner's eyes.
To lie down
There are several methods how to teach a dog to lie down :
- Say "sit" and then put one hand on the withers and the other to show food near the ground. Hold it so that the dog stretches downward, press with your hand during this slack. After doing, say "lie down", praise.
- Put one hand on the withers, put the other behind the front paws. Give the command to "lie down", then press on the animal from above and push the paws forward. After the animal has completely settled down, praise it.
When working, do not allow the dog to fall on its side or back. The command should be executed within 5-10 seconds.
One of the basic commands that is indispensable in everyday life. There are two variants of execution - the dog lies down on its bedding (sunbed) or lies next to you on a leash. It is more convenient to replace the second method with the commands “near” and “lie down”.
It is very easy to teach a dog this word. ... It is enough to offer a delicacy, holding it in your hand, to lure it to the required place. After that, give a treat, praise. Gradually increase the time between doing the spot and the encouragement, and then limiting yourself to only praise.
The dog must not be allowed to immediately jump out of place without a command, with such disobedience it must be returned to the bedding, the result must be fixed again.
A team that is essential for all dogs - from the German Shepherd to the Yorkshire Terrier. Its peculiarity is that learning is about punishment , which can be negatively perceived by the dog. In this case, training should be carried out on the street, choosing a calm and long route. Spread the treats on the ground by yourself or with the help of a partner. Slowly approach the forbidden object when the animal reaches for it, pull the leash and say "fu". You cannot reward for executing a command. After fixing, you need to lay out a more difficult route, for example, where dogs, birds and people are often, work out the command until it is completed.
The team is normative, it is required at home and on the street. Training can be carried out from an early age, a partner is recommended. During the walk, ask your partner to take the dog on a leash at a distance of 1-2 meters from you, and put it on the ground. The owner at this time should loudly pronounce the words "to me", patting on the thigh. At the same time, the partner releases the animal, if it comes up to you - give a reward, praise.
Important teach the dog the command "near" , during which it should become to your left (ideally, the shoulder of the animal should be in close contact with your leg). Training is carried out according to the standard scheme - take the dog by the leash, start moving forward.
Give the command "beside", give to take the desired position, walk a few steps and give a treat. If the dog starts to pull, then make a few jerks with the leash. When the movements are worked out, you can remove the eyeliners and work without it. In terms of complexity, this command is considered equal to the "guard" signal.
Give a paw
Highly easy-to-train command which can be useful when paw examination or nail trimming is required. The scheme of the exercise is to take a treat in your hand, give it a sniff to the dog. After that, squeeze it into a fist at the height of the animal's chest, wait until the dog begins to scratch its paw on your hand. Say the words "give a paw", give a treat.
Voice and growl
They are usually not used in everyday life, but they are necessary if you plan to take an animal on a hunt, for mushrooms in the forest or in search of people. When training, it is important to take into account the temperament and characteristics of the breed, for example, basenji they simply do not know how to make sounds, and Labradors and Shepherds learn to voice quickly.
Pick up a treat, give a sniff to the dog. Raise her body above her, say the command. Fasten the leash to the tree, step back a little. Wait for barking, praise and give a treat. The second teaching method is imitation. Teach to bark on command it is possible with the help of a trained dog.
Another regulatory team that is part of the OKD. It is also required for everyday life to put on a collar, comb the coat or show teeth on command. It is recommended to start training after mastering “sit” “lie down”.
It is easier to teach to stand on the street, in a place where there are no extraneous sounds. Approach the pet and pronounce the phrase clearly. With one hand, lift the puppy under the belly, with the other holding the collar (the dog must rise and freeze). After completing the rack, give praise.
A difficult skill that not every dog can master. Teach the team to fetch required to pass the standard for OKD. For training, you need to find a quiet and peaceful place. To seat the animal, take the leash in your left hand, and in the right hand - an object to be thrown (toy, stick, glove). Tease the pet near the nose, then throw it at a distance, saying "bring the toy." Call to yourself, praise if the dog brought you the necessary thing.
For training, you need a plastic tube up to 15 cm long, the width should be enough to fit a rolled handkerchief there.
First, you need to teach the dog the command "fetch", to work out so that playing with the pipe brings joy. Next, decide what kind of substance you want your dog to learn to find, such as coffee. Pour a few grains into a handkerchief, wrap and place in a tube. Play with your pet, encouraging after each search. After that, start hiding the pipe, the animal is awarded when it finds an object by smell.
A simple command that involves jumping over an obstacle. You can start working out at home. To do this, you need to rest one leg next to the wall. Place the dog on one side and hold the treat on the other. Give to jump, then say the command "barrier", "bar" or "hop". Gradually increase the height, include obstacles on the street.
They have no normative value, they are only required for the intellectual load of your pet. Trick training should begin after the dog has learned the basic basic commands.
The dog should raise the hind part of the body, and rest its front paws on the surface of the floor, ground. The learning algorithm is simple. Take a treat with one hand and hold it by the ground, invite the dog to come up to it. Put the other hand under the stomach, not letting you lie down. When the dog takes the desired position, say the phrase, give a treat. After several repetitions, try to remove the supporting hand.
An easy-to-learn trick that looks pretty cute. To teach the command "kiss", you need to glue a piece of cheese or dry meat on your cheek. Encourage the dog to lick you after completing the praise. Gradually abandon the treat, stimulating the action to be performed only with a voice.
Serve, or bunny
This position is easier to teach a small dog. When performing this exercise, the dog should sit down, raise its front legs, folded together. For training, you need to seat the animal, raise your hand with a treat just above its nose. Move your hand back, achieve the desired action. The command will be considered mastered when the dog takes the necessary position in the voice, freezes in it.
A popular circus exercise, when the dog covers its muzzle with its front paw on the command "shame". For training, you will need a treat and scotch tape. Attach the treat to the animal on the eyebrow, as close to the eye as possible. As soon as you notice how the pet is trying to remove the foreign object, say the key word loudly, give a treat.
Lay the pet down on the command "lie down", take a treat and let it smell. Pull the treat from the nose to the side, then to the side and along the back. Wait for the dog to fall on its side, say the word "die", encourage.
You need to start learning this trick after mastering the command "die". Lay the pet down, then take away the treat until it falls on its side. Continue to lead your hand with the treat until the dog does a somersault around its axis. Pronounce the command loudly, praise.
Put the dog in a lying position, attract with food. Slowly pull a piece of cheese or meat away from your nose, allowing you to crawl towards it. After passing a short distance, give a treat, say the command. Gradually increase the distance and give up food rewards.
Briefly about the main
- Dogs are well trained in various commands and tricks. It is advisable to train from puppyhood.
- For classes, you will need a short leash, treats and toys.
- The main normative commands are place, phew (quietly), towards me, sit, lie down and next to me. They need to be mastered first.
- After learning basic words, you can start training complex tricks, for example, teach your pet to do somersaults or stand up like a gopher.
What commands does your dog know? Share in the comments how you trained your pet.
Puppy training: effective methods from dog handlers, we teach commands at home
A dog living next to a person must obey certain rules of behavior ... Lack of training, of course, is not a problem for the dog, but for the owner, so teaching the dog basic commands is one of the main responsibilities of the owner.
Why you need to train a puppy
When a puppy appears in the house, it is primarily trained in behavior with family members and hygiene. But social behavior and obedience are the main skills that distinguish a well-bred domestic dog. The puppy learns quickly, remembers the commands and, through education and training, the owner of the dog establishes contact with the dog.
The sooner you start training with the dog, with simple commands, the easier life will be side by side. In the process of training, when the owner spends a lot of time with the pet, the dog forms a trusting relationship with the owner, provided that the training is both enjoyable.
What commands a dog should know when it grows up
First of all, training a puppy begins with memorizing a nickname. It's even difficult to call it a team, but memorizing a nickname is the beginning of learning. An adult dog living in a city is obliged to obey the rules of human society.
Every owner is obliged to teach the pet basic commands of obedience. Obligatory knowledge of basic commands applies not only to large dogs, even a small terrier is obliged to follow forbidden orders and the command "to me". First of all, this is the safety of the pet in the city.
- The first thing a dog needs to learn after a nickname is "no", "no" or "fu". Which word to pronounce is the owner's choice. The pet does not care which word will mean the immediate termination of any action, the owner can use absolutely any word for this - for example, "peony", in any language, with any set of sounds and syllables. Of course, it is better that the ban command is sonorous - such words are pronounced faster and easier to remember.
- In addition to the prohibition, it is necessary to teach the dog the command "to me!" Is a very important element on which trust is built. A dog will not approach a person he does not trust. Command "to me" - sometimes it can save the life of an animal, if suddenly the dog got off the leash and ran to the road.
- The “place” command is also required for training. But it is necessary solely for the convenience of the owner. Each dog has a specific place in the house where it spends most of its time and where it feels safe. Departure to the place should not be a punishment, because she returns to the place where she will feel calm.
- The necessary commands also include the basic "sit", "lie down", "beside". These orders will make life easier for the owner of the dog, both during the walk and at home.
Teaching techniques and methods for teams
The most popular forms of training are positive and negative reinforcement and imitation. These methods are related. It is extremely difficult to achieve good results using only one of the methods.
- The negative reinforcement method involves the use of parfos, strangleholds, electroshock collars (ESHO). These devices are used either through the remote control - like an ESHO, or with the help of different jerking forces. Soft ammunition can also affect the dog and this method is preferable, it is less traumatic and more humane.
In addition, ignoring the dog is also a method of negative reinforcement: nothing in the world is more important to the dog than the attention of the owner.
Negative reinforcement is about stopping an unwanted action or correcting unwanted behavior.
- In contrast, positive reinforcement encourages correct behavior. Using this method, treats, play, and the owner's praise are used. At the first stages of upbringing, it is better to combine several conditions - for example, praise and delicacy, or praise and play, are mandatory. Praising your pet for good behavior is a must throughout a dog's life. There is no greater pleasure for a pet than to please the owner. Over time, praise will become an independent type of encouragement, and neither a treat nor a game will be required.
- Imitation is also a very effective method of training. It consists in the fact that the dog copies the behavior of another animal, transfers any behavior to itself. During the period of socialization, a young dog begins to associate itself with a certain creature, depending on who is around it. If a dog lives with a cat from the first month of life, then there is a high probability that it will identify itself with a cat, if with dogs, then it considers itself to the world of dogs. Therefore, it is very important not to take the puppy away from the mother and fellow tribesmen too early for the dog to learn to correctly identify itself.
All of the above techniques are used in an integrated manner. It is impossible to fully train a dog using only one and the same method. Emulation works well, but not everyone can afford to keep multiple animals. Then you can invite friends to the lesson, with an adult, well-bred dog.
First stage: teaching the main teams
The forbidding command is the most important stage of training. It is one of the basic skills, after the nickname.
Learning is based on the carrot and stick principle ... Loud exclamation " ugh "Accompanied by negative reinforcement - a jerk with a leash, clap on the groats with a newspaper. Immediately after the cessation of the unwanted action - positive reinforcement (praise, delicacy, toy).
It is better to start practicing the skill at home, to teach to spit out toys, as if exchanging a toy for food. You can simulate throwing feed on the street. While hand-feeding the puppy while walking, "accidentally" drop a piece. As soon as the pet tries to pick up food, you need to stop it by holding the dog and command “ ugh ". Immediately give another piece of the treat from your hands. The systematic repetition of this exercise, in practice, shows a positive result. In addition, you can train your dog to eat from his bowl only after the command "can". This will help the puppy understand that all food belongs to the owner and cannot be taken until the command is heard.
The pet quickly enough catches the connection between behavior, prohibition of action, command execution and receiving a treat. And also quickly learn how to execute the command.
In training any team, the main thing is consistency. You cannot allow it once, then deny it, and then allow it again. Only the constant identical reaction to the same action will teach your pet to quickly follow orders.
The dog should have a place in the house. In which she feels comfortable - a cozy corner without drafts. It is desirable that the territory, the front door can be viewed from the place, the pet will be calmer this way. It is better if there was a wall on one side of the litter - a protected rear will add confidence to the animal.
You cannot punish a dog for offenses while it is on its bed. A dog's place should be associated only with positive emotions, if the puppy behaved badly and hid from punishment on the bedding, all punitive measures should be stopped immediately.
In order for the dog to quickly remember the command "place" and have pleasant associations, you need to throw a piece of delicacy on the bedding and say the command. Naturally, the puppy will run for food, while he is eating you need to come up, once again reinforcing it with a delicacy and praise " well done, place ". To consolidate the skill, the exercise must be repeated daily, several times a day.
Another not unimportant command - “ to me" .Full-fledged management of an animal in an urban area that does not know how to run up to the owner's call is impossible. During the training of the order "to me" it is strictly forbidden to use negative reinforcement, otherwise the training will not just drag on - the pet will completely refuse to approach the owner. It is necessary to start training on a leash, only having 10 approaches out of 10, you can begin to let go of the dog.
The training takes place as follows:
- When the dog is distracted and moved away from the owner or sniffed at someone's mark, you need to loudly pronounce the nickname or draw the pet's attention in another way (whistle, clapping).
- Once the puppy's attention is drawn, you need to clearly say "Come to me!" and start moving away from the dog, for kids it becomes a fun catch-up game. Or show your pet a treat, if he is hungry - he will definitely run for yummy.
- While the puppy is running, it is imperative to praise and encourage him in a cheerful voice.
- When the puppy runs up, immediately give him food or start a short game, without ceasing to praise and stroke.
This command is learned very quickly - the dog enjoys not only receiving encouragement, but also the admiration of the owner.
The teaching uses the methods of positive and negative reinforcement. A treat is taken into the hand - that which the dog loves most of all. The delicacy is clenched in a fist. Stretching out your hand, you need to give the command " To me ”, Repeat it periodically.
The puppy will try to get the treat in different ways, will try to bite, lick, poke his nose. Misconduct should be responded to with a restraining order (negative reinforcement). But as soon as the baby touches his hand with his paw, open his palm at the same moment and give the food, praising the puppy.
Repeat 3-4 times, periodically changing the hand, so that the dog obeys the order from any hand.
Full article on this topic: "Teaching the command" Give a paw! ": Teaching methods from a dog handler."
You need to take a piece of delicacy in your fist and bring it to the dog's nose ... Slowly move your hand with a piece from the muzzle upward and slightly backward so that the pet, chasing food, lifts its head. At this moment, you need to say the command " sit "And raise the treat a little higher. Trying to reach, the dog will sit down instinctively. If the dog is overexcited, began to jump, demanding to give food, it is necessary to fix the head by the collar and slightly press on the croup. After fulfilling the order, it is imperative to encourage and give away the "tasty treat".
"To lie down"
When the dog knows the command " Sit ", Sit the puppy in front of you, showing the treat in your hand.
Say the command “ To lie down »And lead in front of the dog's nose with a hand with a treat clamped in it down, towards the front paws. The dog will instinctively stretch and lie down. Once the command is completed, repeat “ To lie down ", Immediately give away the treat and praise.
When a dog sees any irritant - be it a cat, another dog, any object and starts barking, you need to command “ Vote "And while the dog is barking, praise and encourage ... The puppy will not immediately understand why in some cases he is scolded for barking, sometimes encouraged. The voice command should be given every time the dog barks for the action to take hold. If the dog starts barking without a command " Vote ”, This should be disregarded, completely ignoring such behavior.
Working out this command will correct the unwanted behavior.
Team " nearby "- the only repeating order, which must be pronounced several times in the process of movement. The basic position is that the pet sits at the handler's left leg. The beginning of the movement corresponds to giving the command. After uttering the order, it is necessary to start moving, in parallel with this, not missing the puppy's attention with the help of a toy or a treat. In the early stages of training, you need to praise your pet every few steps. After successfully passing 2 - 3 meters, let go for a walk.
This command is most easily practiced with young dogs during the game. Throwing any objects (stick, ball or favorite soft toy), command “ Aport ". Reinforcement of the team in this case is the receipt of the coveted toy.
Bringing a toy can be taught using the order “ To me »Immediately after the dog has lifted the object.
Stage Two: Learning Unusual Commands
Each owner wants to see his dog special, wants to teach him some unusual tricks. The desire to stand out is completely normal, because a well-mannered dog is an object of pride for the owner and the envy of others.
To train this team, contact with the owner must be excellent. This simple trick is based solely on trust between the pet and the owner.
To practice the skill, you need to sit the dog in front of you, say the command “ Kiss ”And, with a delicacy clenched in his teeth, bend over to the dog. Correct execution of the order looks like this: the dog stands with its front paws on the chest and licks its lips. Strengthening the skill in this case is the encouragement of the owner and the receipt of a treat.
For training, you need to put your pet in front of you ... Hold the treat in your hand in front of the pet's nose, up and back a little. The dog will try to reach for the food and, as soon as it rips off its front legs from the surface, command "Serve" and give encouragement.
Another option for training can be mechanical impact. When the dog is sitting, you need to take it by the front paws with your hands and raise it to the level of the dog's chest, at the same time a command is given. In the correct position, a treat is given, then you can release the dog.
To teach your dog a funny trick " whirl "You need to take the treat in your right hand and, using the guidance method, force the pet to make a 360-degree rotation around itself ... Give the reward immediately after that. Only after several repetitions can the dog's actions be linked to the command, when the animal already begins to understand what they want from him.
Executing a command is like ordering “ To lie down »... The dog should calmly stand in front of the owner. After giving the command “ Bow down »Move the hand with food down towards the front paws. When the dog stubbornly lowers the croup in an attempt to lie down, you need to support the lower body with your hand.
First, the command “ Nearby ", The dog stands on the left side of the person. Team " Snake »Is practiced like this: there should be food in the hand, slowly lead in front of the dog's nose, passing the hand between the legs. Movements should be slow so that the dog understands what is required of him.
It is not easy to train a dog to carry out this order - in nature, a dog does not walk backwards, it turns its body.
Starting position - the dog stands in front of the owner. The command “ back "And the man starts to move towards the dog. Instinctively, the dog will begin to back away a little so that the owner does not step on his paws. Even if the dog took only one step, it is already worthy of praise. The number of steps must be added gradually during training.
"Leap into the ring"
The ring must be of sufficient size so that the dog can freely pass through it. First, the ring should be placed on the floor, with a delicacy to show the direction of movement through the ring. When the dog passes, praise, give the treat. While practicing the skill, gradually raise the ring higher.
Tips from a specialist
The list of tips for raising a puppy from a dog handler:
- Young animals should not be overly troublesome, classes should be frequent, but not long.
- The total training time is 60 to 90 minutes per day, with breaks.
- Working out the commands must be consistent, you can not give the pet more tasks than it can complete.
- All orders are given once, if the puppy refuses to follow - it is brought to the right position mechanically.
- Good motivation is the key to successful training.
Video: how to start training a puppy
Training is a long and difficult process, but there are no dogs that do not lend themselves to education ... Successful practice requires good motivation, consistency, and continuity. The owner's patience and diligence will result in a well-mannered and obedient dog, which will only delight all family members and will not create problems for the owner.
Dogs are the best companions for a fun pastime. One way to have a fun evening is to learn new tricks. Learning new tricks stimulates the brain and physically burdens the pet. Most of the commands listed here are specific to the OKD course. Successful completion of the basic exercises from the OKD course will establish your contact with your pet during walks, facilitate your interaction.
OKD for dogs
To learn how to control your dog, you need to train the animal. There are no universal schemes for each individual, but there is a general training course that any novice dog breeder can master on his own. You can take a general training course by signing up for a dog handler's club in your city. Before paying for the lessons, ask for feedback from former participants, talk to the dog handler in person, or attend a trial lesson. Sometimes, finding a coach is not easy.
Read our article on how we were looking for a dog handler for a West Siberian husky.
Pros and cons of group lessons OKD
The advantages of OKD classes on the site in a group include:
- Socialization: dogs are social animals. For them, communication with relatives, contact with other people is significant. The sooner the puppy begins to get acquainted with the world around people and their own kind, the easier it will be for you to control the animal in the future.
- Structure: on the site, the program is thought out in advance by the dog handler Each lesson includes theory, practice, and development of previous skills. You will not only learn new exercises, but you will also have to practice and consolidate them.
- Support and advice : if you decide to sign up for a course with a dog handler, then you have the opportunity not only to learn the basic exercises, but also to get advice: what to focus on during training. Perhaps you have questions about nutrition - feel free to ask the dog handler.
- Exam : Typically, a course consists of a certain number of lessons At the end of the course, many clubs arrange an exam: cadets must demonstrate that they have completed all the skills learned during the course.
The disadvantages of group activities include:
- Mass character and lack of an individual approach : Groups usually consist of 6 to 20 people with furry friends. And the trainer is one, maximum two (assistant). With all his desire to work out the lesson with high quality, the trainer will not be able to separate and pay attention to each student.
- The cost : The OKD course includes a clear list of skills that will be practiced in the classroom. If you have the opportunity, then familiarize yourself with the course program in advance. Sometimes the cost is unjustifiably overpriced.
- Inexpediency : If you want to correct certain behavioral traits, ask if these activities will be useful to you. Any dog handler is motivated to gather as many clients as possible into his group. The main thing is not to get the opposite effect: for example, if your dog shows aggression towards other people, then visiting the OKD or protective guard service will be a hasty step.
How do you teach your dog different commands on your own?
Besides the organized courses, you can learn the basic tricks on your own. Also, performing some exercises will facilitate further training if you go to the site to the dog handler.
The training process should last no more than 10 minutes once or twice a day. It is important to be in a good mood and to reward your pet for successful exercise. Thus, the animal will form an associative series: training - a joyful owner - encouragement, so it will happily join the work.
Give a paw
To master the command Give a paw, you do not need to have special knowledge and skills. This is a simple trick that an aspiring dog breeder can handle. What is it for? In everyday life, it can be useful for trimming the claws of a pet, or examining the paw for damage.
How to teach a dog the Give Paw command? Take some flavorful treat and clench it into a fist. Sit the dog in front of you, bring your fist with a treat to the level of the pet's chest. First, the dog will sniff out food and lick your hand. Your task is to wait for the moment when the animal puts its paw on your hand. At this point, say Give paw and feed the treat. Repeat the exercise 6-8 times, then take a break for 10-20 minutes. Repeat.
How to teach a dog to command Place? The seat is a necessary exercise to perform. Firstly, it is a household need. When a puppy or an adult dog appears in your house, you should give him a place to rest and sleep. You will probably not like it if your four-legged friend gnaws juicy bones on your shoe rug or, moreover, posts your sofa. Therefore, for the comfort of all family members, this trick must be mastered. Secondly, the Place team is included in the list of required skills of the OKD and is handed over at certification.
To master the exercise, take the food and place it on the dog's bed or in the cage (if the pet has a cage as a cage). When the dog takes the treat, say the place and praise your friend. Use a shutter speed: When your pet sits down to pick up the treat, walk up to him and feed him some more treat. Fasten the skill 6-8 times.
If you are teaching an adult dog to sit, then make sure that the pet knows the commands to Lie and To Me.
Take the furry friend to his place. Order to Lie. Step back 5-10 steps and command To Me. When the pet comes up, say Place and take it to the bed. If the dog doesn’t know where to go, point him in the direction by repeating “Place, place” and reward him with a treat while performing. Give a treat. Then repeat the steps.
This is the most important team to me. If your dog is doing the To Me exercise, you can let him go during the walk without worrying about the call.
When learning the To Me trick, use a very tasty treat. At the initial stage of training, the animal must be hungry. Then he will have the motivation to approach you when you call. Never scold the dog when doing the To me exercise, otherwise the association will be fixed that it is worth approaching the owner like something bad.
Start your training in familiar distraction-free terrain: other animals, people, noisy construction sites, and a tomlike one. Let go of the dog and after a while get his attention. The distance should not exceed 3 meters. When the pet comes to you, tell Me and praise me generously. Before giving a treat, pet the pet, command to Sit. Your task is to make it clear that you called him not just like that. And only then treat yourself to a treat. Repeat the exercise several times, take a break.
The next day, increase the distance between you and your dog to 5 meters. Gradually, the pet will learn that for the Co team I should receive generous praise.
The command should be pronounced once. In case of ignoring, it is worth approaching the dog on your own. If the pet gets used to ignoring your commands, then retraining it will be much more difficult.
Gradually reinforce the exercise in different circumstances. At first, it will be difficult for the animal to perform To me in a new environment. Perseverance is important here.
To teach your dog the Sit command, grab a treat and choose a quiet place without distractions. To teach this trick, you need to apply physical pressure.
Call your pet, place your hand with a treat over its head, and gently press down on the sacrum with the other hand. Say Sit, feed a treat. Usually the Sit exercise is accompanied by a raised hand gesture. When the pet realizes that the phrase to sit is followed by pressure on the sacrum, he will perform the exercise without mechanical impact. Further, use the right hand gesture.
The Sit command is useful in a public place, when visiting a veterinarian, and before serving food. This exercise helps to calm the dog down, prepare for further training - it helps to concentrate.
To lie down
This command is basic and belongs to the OKD course. It can be useful when visiting a veterinarian, while traveling on public transport.
How to train your dog to lie down:
Seat the pet on command. Place one hand on the withers, and in the other hand take a handful of treats and bring it to the front paws. When the pet lies down, say "Lie down" and reward a treat. A similar method of training can be applied using a leash: put your left hand at the level of the withers, with the other pull the leash down to the front legs.
When performed correctly, the forelegs lie straight in front of the dog, the hind legs are drawn in. The position of the animal on its side or on its back is not allowed.
In OKD, the command to Lie down is indicated by a gesture: the right hand, raised horizontally with the palm down, is lowered to the level of the hip.
The video provides a detailed method for teaching the Lie trick. The video also demonstrates the use of shutter speed.
What is the team Near? This is the position of the dog at the owner's left leg: the pet's shoulder should be on the same level with the owner's leg. The dog should walk alongside, synchronously, without pulling the lead.
How to teach a dog to command Nearby? First, take your pet on a leash. Place him mechanically one level with your left foot. Say Beside and take a few steps. If your dog is walking around you calmly, reward him with a tasty treat. If the dog pulls forward with strong tension on the leash, return it to its original position.
Exercise Option Next to the Treat:
1) take your dog on a leash
2.Sit at the left leg, take the leash in your right hand, in the left hold the treat
3. Say Beside, hand holding the treat at the pet's nose, start slowly moving forward.
4. The dog will try to gnaw the treat out of your hand, say next to it and move like this for 10-20 steps.
5. Praise the pet and do the same in the other direction.
The video shows two options for training: with and without encouragement. Choose which one you like best.
Fu or Not
This command is forbidden. The goal of execution is to stop undesirable behavior: spoiling things, eating prohibited food, picking up garbage, and so on. Achieving clear execution is not easy. There are many ways to learn.
Teach your pet to exercise Fu or Do not need to be done as early as possible. Puppies explore the world with their teeth, so it's in your best interest to get the command done as early as possible.
Foo's command is discouraged by the treat and should only be applied to its merits.
How to train a dog to command Fu, Can't?
One of the most popular methods is provoking a rebound from the ground and a snatch of the leash. Prepare slices of sausage, sausages or other food in advance and scatter around the area for walking. When a furry friend reaches for a treat, pull back the leash sharply and say Fu or Don't loudly. Don't reward your pet. Move on. To relax and distract the dog, say another command, such as Sit or Near, and praise for doing. A detailed video instruction on how to wean a dog to pick up from the ground is presented below.
During training, your task is to form unpleasant associations when pronouncing Fu, You cannot. You can use an electric collar, a stalker, or a rolled newspaper. Punish your puppy.
Another way to teach the dog a trick is not - "bite" the puppy by the withers. In this case, we act as if the puppy was punished by his mother. This method is quite effective, the puppy quickly understands the essence. Detailed instructions are shown in the video.
It is better to teach the puppy taboos than to be afraid to take your expensive shoes from an adult dog weighing 30-40 kg. The pet must clearly understand the consequences of the command.
Grabbing is working with an item according to the owner's command. This exercise is included in the general training course, but it is not studied in all canine clubs. You can teach your dog how to do it yourself.
How to teach a dog the Aport command? What does Aport look like in performance? The trainer throws an object (toy, stick), gives a command, the dog picks up the thing, returns to the owner and gives the object. The dog must take a position at the owner's left leg.
To successfully complete the Aport, you need to train your pet to give you items on the "Give" command.
To learn the Aport trick, take any object (large or medium), give your four-legged friend the opportunity to grab it and say Aport. After that, take the toy on command. Repeat the exercise several times so that the dog understands the difference between Aport and Dai.
The next step is to learn to follow the testament and pick it up on command. To do this, take the dog on a leash, tease the thing and throw it forward by commanding Aport. Run up to the object together and when the dog takes the object in its mouth, actively praise it.
In ideal execution for the training period, it looks like this: The dog is next to the owner - watches the object - runs after him on the command Aport - returns to the owner - gives the object to the command Dai - sits down next to the owner. Over time, the dog must complete the entire complex with one Aport command.
Below is a step-by-step video instruction.
The Voice command is useful if you often go out with your dog to nature or participate in search activities. In some breeds, barking is very pronounced (husky, spitz) and it is easy to teach a pet to bark in a command. Other breeds do not always bark, and owners are wondering how to train the dog to do this.
To train your dog to bark for your team, grab a treat, a leash, and sit in a comfortable spot. Place the pet in front of you, raise your hand high with the treat and say the Voice. The dog may not understand what you want from it. If so, provoke her by stepping on the leash with your foot and teasing with a treat. When she starts to bark, say Voice and give a treat. Reinforce the skill 6-8 times.
If your dog barks uncontrollably, and you would like to solve this problem, read the article on how to deal with barking.
When the command Die is executed, the dog lies on its side and does not move.
For your pet to learn the Die trick, it must be able to perform the Lie exercise.
Command to Lie down. Take a treat and bring it to your nose, then stretch it slightly to the side. At this moment, the pet will fall on its side. You can help a little with your hand by pressing on the torso. At this moment, we praise the pet, give a treat, say Die.
To consolidate the skill, repeat the exercise several times every day.
Teaching a pet to teams is a part of the educational process. Training is needed to instill discipline in a four-legged friend. A well-bred dog is the pride and safety of the owner. With a disciplined pet, you will be insured against possible problems during walks, from disorder in the house, gnawed slippers, unexpected barking, frightened passers-by and other troubles. Therefore, you need to teach the puppy commands as soon as possible - dog handlers recommend starting classes from the age of three months.
1. Why do you need to train a dog
2. How to teach the dog: alone or with a trainer?
3. What training courses exist
- Service and rescue
4. Rules and methods of training dogs
5. Features of training
- Adult dogs
6. Auxiliary subjects
7. List of commands for dog training
- lie down
- A place
- To me and Near
- Take a walk
- Give a paw
- Fu and Quiet
- Stunt teams
Why you need to train a dog
The set of commands for non-service dogs can be very diverse. Some owners ask a four-legged friend to bring slippers, others command “Guard!”, And others teach the pet to bow. Dogs are highly trainable and can learn a wide variety of skills.
Of course, the first need to learn commands is education. The dog must understand the prohibition and perform the simplest actions so that the whole family is comfortable living with a four-legged pet.
The second most important reason is discipline. During training, the dog is placed one step below the person and realizes that she is not a leader. This forms the obedient yet respectful behavior of the animal.
The third reason - if the dog was started for specific purposes (guard, guide, companion, hunter), it must be able to carry out specific commands. They are usually taught under the guidance of an experienced trainer.
Additional, so to speak, bonus benefits include the joint fun pastime of the owner and the four-legged. Both learn to understand and respect each other, rapprochement occurs and a strong friendship develops.
How to teach a dog commands: alone or with a trainer?
Despite the fact that the dog is considered the best friend of man, having an outstanding intellect, initially any puppy is a cute naughty creature. He has a habit of doing what he pleases, regardless of the wishes and requests of his master. Teaching the puppy to command at home should be started as early as possible. The ideal age for learning the first commands is 2-3 months. At this time, the puppy may well master the simplest skills.
Raising an obedient animal is a long, laborious process that requires patience and endurance. Not every owner can do this, so inexperienced dog breeders often turn to an instructor. But, if you do not plan to take your four-legged friend to exhibitions or you have a decorative breed, you can do training at home.
Homeschooling has many benefits:
the animal is engaged in a familiar environment without stress;
the dog learns to listen to its owner;
saving time on the road;
saving financial resources.
Cons of self-training:
the effectiveness of training for inexperienced breeders is lower (especially if the breed is difficult to train);
limited types of services and commands that can be taught to the dog;
there remains the possibility of mistakes on the part of the owner, which can lead to the consolidation of unwanted skills in the dog.
If you decide to train your pet yourself, be prepared for the fact that you will have to be strict. For the correct, successful execution of commands, you need to praise the dog, and for non-compliance - to show your displeasure. Animals are very good at picking up intonations, so it's enough to express your disappointment with a voice.
If you have no experience in dog breeding at all or you have started a breed that requires strict education, it is advisable to seek advice from an instructor. He will tell you how to teach the dog commands at home, taking into account its character, temperament and breed. It is not necessary that the dog be purebred - mongrels also need good education.
Pros of training an animal with a trainer:
saving your time and effort;
at the end of the course, a certificate is issued - it can be useful at exhibitions and competitions;
regularity of classes;
professional approach - the result will be achieved in any case.
the dog gets used to the conditions of the school and to the trainer - the owner will have to make an effort to transfer his skills to everyday life;
stress for the dog, especially the puppy;
instructor services are not so cheap.
Each owner decides for himself whether to turn to a trainer or to raise a dog on his own. In both cases, the dog breeder will have to take the issue seriously and take responsibility for himself.
Another important point in training is the owner's self-discipline. Without her, raising an obedient dog is almost impossible - the owner needs to work not only on raising the animal, but also on himself. If you feel a lack of rigor and consistency, it is better to turn to a professional trainer.
What training courses exist
If you decide to use the services of a professional trainer, your next step is to choose a training program. There are several types of training courses. Each course not only determines how to teach the dog certain commands, but also solves a number of additional problems.
This is a general training course (abbreviated as OKD), which includes basic commands for dogs, which can be trained by a pet of any breed - from a shepherd dog to a toy terrier.
The skills and abilities acquired in this course form the basis for the formation of conditioned reflexes in an animal.
After passing the OKD, your dog will learn to:
walk next to the trainer / owner;
wear a muzzle;
not pick up anything from the ground;
understand the forbidding command;
listen to commands: landing, laying, standing;
execute the command "Aport";
know your place;
respond to the call;
do not respond to noise stimuli.
The duration of classes in general training courses is 2-4 months, classes are held 1-2 times a week.
This course is suitable for those who are faced with such problems:
the dog does not obey during a walk, does not want to walk on a leash, and if released, it constantly runs away;
barks and jumps at passers-by, cyclists, runners;
picks up garbage on the street;
behaves aggressively towards other animals;
is terrified of city noise.
The purpose of the UGS (controlled city dog) course is not only to teach the animal adequate behavior in an urban environment, but also to show the owner how to manage the pet in everyday life. The course is designed for amateur dog breeders who need a simple, comfortable and easy-to-use companion dog.
UGS resembles OKD in many ways, and only an experienced dog handler will be able to see the fundamental difference between one course and another. The UGS exam includes testing only 8 skills that are necessary for a comfortable life for a person and a dog in a big city. These skills include:
calm attitude to city noise;
lack of fear of traveling in transport;
friendly and peaceful attitude towards strangers and animals;
obedience while walking and at home;
knowledge of the "Fu" command.
OKD, on the other hand, is the basis for mastering more complex courses: guard-guard, service, etc.
The protective and guard service (ZKS) is aimed at developing protective and protective skills in the pet. The course was developed in the middle of the 20th century in the USSR. Basically, such training is designed to train guard, guard, escort, patrol dogs. However, the course is in great demand among amateur dog breeders: it helps to raise a guard dog.
It is important to know that this training course cannot be completed on your own. To successfully pass the exam, classes are required exclusively with an experienced dog handler and instructor. In addition, to complete the course, your dog must meet a number of requirements:
age not less than a year;
the dog must have a strong nervous system and a stable psyche;
good sense of smell and hearing, no problems with teeth and jaw;
the dog must know the course of the OKD;
have muscles, be physically developed.
The most suitable breeds for ZKS are German, South Russian, Caucasian, Central Asian Shepherd Dogs, Dobermans, Rottweilers, Black Terriers, Moscow Watchdogs.
Service and rescue
Search and Rescue Service is considered one of the most difficult training courses among all. The rescue dog certification program includes a set of exams for obedience and agility.
The exam tests the following skills:
Search and rescue dogs must meet the following criteria: be completely healthy and physically tough, have perfect scent, sight and hearing, be friendly to people, have a strong nervous system, be purposeful and gambling, quickly adapt to external conditions.
The most suitable breeds for the search and rescue service are German and Belgian Shepherds, Retrievers, Border Collies, Giant Schnauzers, Airedale Terriers, Russian Spaniels, Newfoundlands, St. Bernards.
A separate area of the service and rescue service is the training of guide dogs. A guide for the blind is one of the most prestigious canine "professions". In Russia, only a few specialized centers train guide dogs. The most commonly used guide dog is the Labrador. The second most popular are German Shepherds.
If you want your dog not only to be obedient, but also strong, enduring, to win prizes in competitions, then you cannot do without a special course of sports training.
Sports training is not only about teaching animals commands and correct behavior in sports competitions, but also keeping the dog in excellent physical shape. Moreover, such activities will bring a lot of pleasure to both the animal itself and its owner. Therefore, many dog breeders prefer cynological sports to all other types of training.
The basic commands for dogs, which are trained in the course of sports training, do not differ much from OKD or UGS. These are all the same "Sit", "Fu", "Place", "Nearby", etc. But all these commands are used for playing sports and overcoming obstacles.
The list of breeds suitable for sports activities is quite wide. There are much more of them than those that are suitable for official work, since the requirements for their training are softer. Training can be done both independently and with a trainer.
Sports disciplines for dogs have a wide variety, allowing you to easily select a breed for a particular type of dog sport. These are racing, diving, freestyle, agility and others.
Rules and Methods for Teaching Dogs Command
There is an opinion that it is impossible to train an adult dog: supposedly, it is possible to master all stages of the training course only in puppyhood. It's a delusion. Of course, babies learn faster and assimilate information easier, but adult dogs can also be trained. The main thing is to train regularly, competently and be patient, not to get nervous when an adult dog does not learn a lesson very quickly.
It is best to train in a place familiar to your pet. It is desirable that there are no distractions: cars, passers-by, other dogs, etc. If the territory is chosen unfamiliar, the animal must first study it, examine it in order to exclude possible dangers and calm down.
You should not do the training immediately after waking up or after eating. During the summer, it is not recommended to train in the middle of the day, since dehydration, overheating and all related problems can be provoked. If there is no other option, get enough drinking water for your pet.
Don't forget to take treats to class. Consider your pet's preferences. For some dogs, dry food is the best, for others, a piece of meat or a slice of cheese. You can buy special cookies for training purposes at pet stores.
You can reward a dog not only with something tasty, but also with praise and affection. This must be done correctly. If you reward your pet for some action, you need to praise right away. If the command has already been completed and some time has passed, the reward will be misunderstood by the pet.
If you decide to go through a training course with your pet on your own, pay attention to the following recommendations :
Classes should be regular, ideally daily. The duration of your workouts should be increased gradually. For the first lessons, 15 minutes is enough.
Commands must be given clearly, with special intonations. The dog must distinguish between the intonation of commands and encouraging words.
To repeat the order, if the student did not fulfill it the first time, should be no more than two times, otherwise it will lose its value. The dog will think that the fulfillment of the requirement is not necessary, and it is possible to fulfill it from the tenth time.
Before giving orders, you need to attract the attention of the animal - pronounce its nickname.
You cannot lose composure in case of pet's failures in training, get nervous, raise your voice, and even more so beat the animal.
For success, do not forget to reward your four-legged friend with an affectionate word or a tasty morsel.
Conduct the initial classes in the same area. After the dog gets used to training, the place can be changed.
Features of training
Teaching the puppy commands at home should be in the form of a game. It is better that the puppy at the initial stage of his "education" does not feel the difference between normal communication, play and training. For adult dogs, a more serious approach is needed.
How to teach the puppy commands depends on his behavior in the future. It is worth starting to raise a dog at the age of three months. By this time, the baby should know where he belongs and not shit at home. The main rule of training is that it is strictly forbidden to beat a puppy. If you want to punish, then express dissatisfaction with a stern voice - this is quite enough.
The main commands with which to start training: "To me", "Fu", "Place". Working with a young dog should be systematic. You can start with 15-20 minutes a day, then bring it up to 40 minutes. If you spend longer training, the dog will simply get tired and will not perceive the owner.
During training, you should take breaks for 5-10 minutes so that the dog can rest. This applies to both puppies and adult dogs, especially if they have not previously taken a training course.
Adult dog training
An adult dog is much more difficult to train than a puppy. First, the animal has already developed its own behavioral habits. Secondly, the stage of puberty has occurred, and hormones very often prevent the animal from perceiving the commands of the owner. Thirdly, an adult dog is not as open to new things as a puppy.
However, it is possible to train an adult dog, and there are many positive examples. The main thing is to follow the sequence in the classes, be attentive and patient.
On average, it takes from 3 months to a year to train basic commands. When teaching an adult dog, it is necessary to take into account its temperament and, depending on this, adjust the training methods. Try not to show negative emotions, do not make sudden movements, especially if the dog is prone to aggression, talk to the animal in the process.
It is important to find the right food and change the location for your walks. Emphasis should be placed on building a relationship of trust between the dog and its owner. This will help both her and you to learn the necessary skills faster.
Some owners use electric collars, but this method is considered inhumane. It is possible only under the guidance of a trainer and in the case when the dog is a danger to others.
The key to good training is choosing the right equipment. Here is the minimum set of auxiliary items that every dog breeder should have when training his pet:
a training bag, a feeding bag, a bag for treats - this piece of equipment is called differently, but the essence is the same - it contains a treat;
regular and strict (metal) collars;
short (1-1.5 m) and long (10-12 m) leashes;
grasp - also called "rope" - plays the role of a conditional adversary to which the dog's teeth are redirected;
noose, or ringing - recommended for training with adult animals as part of a physical approach to training; it is better to purchase models with a retainer, since they allow you to attach a stranglehold on the desired part of the neck;
a dumbbell is a surrogate substitute for the hunted game, which the dog must, on the command "Aport", bring, and then, on the command "Give", give it to the trainer; without a command, the dog should not react to the thrown dumbbell and lift it from the ground.
A strict collar is used to train dogs that are not sensitive enough to painful stimuli of the usual strength. It is also recommended to purchase several toys for training the dog. An arabic ball, puller, and regular rope work best.
List of commands for dog training
There is a basic set of commands that are consistent with the natural instincts of animals. Subject to systematic training, a hardworking and patient owner will be able to independently train his puppy and raise an obedient, quick-witted, "intelligent" dog.
First of all, you need to work out the response to the nickname and the skill of obedience. If a pet hears his name, some order, sees a warning sign, a gesture - he must react.
A necessary and often used command that encourages the dog to stop and sit at the right time. The dog must obey this order immediately, regardless of mood or situation.
In the first lessons, say "Sit!" follows when the puppy sits down by itself. Then it is necessary to achieve execution by order of the person.
To practice the skill, you will need a short leash and a treat.
Show your pet the reward and lift it up. At the same time, say “Sit!” Clearly. Pull the leash strap slightly upward and gently press down on the pet's rump. When the dog is in the right position, praise him.
The command is practiced before proceeding with the new element "Give a paw!"
To lie downThis command is not often used, but it is useful for a dog to know it. For example, when examining a veterinarian, you can give the order "Down!" This skill is mastered after the dog has learned the command "Sit!".
First, the owner commands "Sit!", And then, when the dog takes the necessary position, clearly says "Lie down!" and pulls the leash down, pressing lightly on the withers.
Movements must be performed carefully, without sudden jolts. Make sure that the dog lies flat, without falling on its side.
Service dogs must learn to take a lying position.
Unlike the previous command, this order is used much more often in everyday life. When dressing or brushing, this command is very helpful. It is not at all difficult to learn it, but it is better to start practicing the skill after the puppy reaches six months of age.
first give the pet the command "Sit!";
when he reaches the required position, clearly say "Stand!" and lift the dog, catching it under the belly, the owner should be on the right side;
after a pause of 4-5 sec. reward the puppy.
Be patient with your pet, who has just begun to study the team - he should not feel the irritation and dissatisfaction of the owner, otherwise the study will go to waste.
Most dog owners allow their pets to roam freely around the house and rest where they like. But no matter where the dog prefers to be in the room, it must know its place and, when instructed by the owner, go there. For this, the command "Place!" Is being worked out.
Prepare a treat and bring your puppy close to the mat. Hold the collar with your left hand and show your dog the reward with your right hand. Then place the treat on the rug. The dog should eat it from the rug, not from your hand, this is the key point.
After you put the reward in place, you need to take the puppy some distance. Then you should clearly say "Place!" and release the pet.
As you train, gradually increase the distance to the mat.
Then take the pet to another room and, letting go, command "Place!".
Dogs can easily learn this command, but, although it sounds strict, it should not cause negative associations in the pet.
To me and Near
The most popular commands, since in real life they are used more often than others. Without mastering the command "Come to me!" the dog will not become controllable, so it is worked out to the ideal. If the dog does not comply with this command, it must not be released without a leash for a walk. There were cases when this order saved the life of an animal.
You should master the skill in stages:
first say "Come to me!" in a calm, even voice, when the dog is already heading towards you;
then use auxiliary objects that attract the attention of the animal (treat, toy), the distance between the owner and the pet at this stage should be small;
after achieving the first results, the distance should be increased, the goal is to achieve the execution of the order under conditions when the dog does not see a person and reacts only to a sound signal.
If you are planning any unpleasant events for the pet (punishment, claw cutting, combing), do not use this command - so that the four-legged does not develop fear and a negative psychological "anchor".
The command "Near!" used every day and belongs to the main. Its successful implementation on walks, in public places will insure the breeder against unpleasant surprises.
Wait until the pet walks up, its attention will not be scattered and it will not actively respond to external stimuli. Better to practice this skill on the way home.
Use a short leash. Moving at a moderate pace, keep the leash close to the collar and clearly say “Near!”.
In case the pet moves away, use the leash to guide it into place and repeat the requirement.
Change the pace if you successfully master the skill. Go first to brisk walking and then to jogging.
Change the pace of movement, then accelerating, then slowing it down. Regardless of the pace of movement, the dog should always be at the owner's left leg and walk parallel.
The final stage is to practice the skill without a leash.
Take a walk
This order is carried out by the animals without any difficulty. Usually this command is given after completing some task, for example, to pause in training sessions. The owner should just say "Take a walk!" and show with a gesture in the right direction. Practicing this skill is practically unnecessary - tetrapods learn it with lightning speed.
Give a paw
Some breeders find this command completely useless, as the dog can learn to shake out its paw whenever the owner bends towards it. However, this skill can come in handy when clipping your nails or washing your paws after a walk.
Prepare a treat and stand in front of the sitting dog. Hold the tidbit in your hand and show it to your pet. The dog will try to get it with its teeth, and when it fails, it will connect its paw.
That's when you have to say "Give your paw!" Take a paw in your hand and hold it for a while.
It doesn't matter how many times a pet gives a paw: it should be rewarded for this action every time, at least with words of praise.
Fu and Quiet
Or, in another variation, "You can't!" A prohibitive command that requires the dog to stop doing something. This order belongs to the basic ones, mastering it is of great importance in raising a puppy. The command is often used to wean a dog from picking up unfamiliar objects, rushing at people, biting, etc.
The technique should be practiced on a sagging leash. At that moment, when the dog intends to perform an undesirable action, it is necessary to jerk the leash sharply and pronounce "Fu!" Strictly and clearly.
This order should be associated with unpleasant images for the dog.
The command "Silence" or "Quiet" is a signal that does not require any physical effort from the dog, therefore it can and should be practiced from the age of 2 months.
The principle of training here is that the barking dog is distracted in some way, the command is "Quiet" and is encouraged when the dog has stopped barking.
The moment of encouragement is very important here: the dog must clearly link the encouragement with the cessation of barking and at the same time understand that it is not achieving what it wants by barking, but by silence. To do this, pause: if the dog stops barking, wait a little and, if the barking does not repeat itself, encourage - give a treat.
The importance of this command is not as great as, for example, the command "Sit!", But this skill helps to walk an agile and energetic dog. It is worth starting to master it after working out the commands "Come to me!" and "Sit!" Learning algorithm:
first you need to command "Sit!", and then show your pet some interesting object (stick, toy);
when the puppy tries to take away the object, throw it back and order “Aport!”;
point your hand at the toy, the dog must understand where he should go;
if the puppy does not come back on its own, command "Come to me!".
The skill is very quickly instilled in puppyhood. It is much more difficult to teach an adult dog to bring an object.
There are two main ways to teach this command to your dog:
Prepare a treat for your four-legged friend, put on the collar and tie the leash to the collar, then press the leash with your foot on the ground so that the dog has little room to move. Raise your hand with the treat up and say “Voice” several times: the dog should bark because of the inaccessibility of food and the inability to do anything. If the four-legged did this, reward him with a treat and repeat the action many times until he starts barking only on command.
Does the dog start barking randomly, sitting at home or in the yard, hearing other dogs or simply reacting to passers-by? In this case, you need to repeat the "Voice" command and reward the dog with a treat.
This command is considered one of the most difficult for dogs. If you decide to teach your pet this command, it is important to remember that there are dogs that do not like to make any sounds, and some, for example, Basenji, simply do not know how to do this.
This command can be practiced only in dogs that have completed a basic training course (BCD) and are familiar with all the basic commands. It is necessary to take into account the mental characteristics of the pet. If he is unbalanced and poorly controlled, it is better to refuse to get acquainted with this team, since this is a rather dangerous skill that turns even a small dog into a weapon.
Teach the order "Fas!" possible from the age of six months and under the guidance of a professional instructor. Hearing this order, the dog must attack the given object.
Mostly the Wait command is used in conjunction with other commands such as Sit or Lie. With these commands, the optimal holding time is approximately 15 seconds.
You can teach your dog to wait as follows. It is necessary to come with the dog to the chosen place and calmly say: "Sit". After the dog does this, give the command "Wait". Then you need to constantly say: "Sit, wait", but at the same time slowly and calmly retreat back in small steps.
After walking a few steps, return to your pet and reward him with good words. Initially, you need to make an exposure of 10 seconds. Gradually, you will be able to increase the distance you will move away, and, accordingly, the exposure time will increase.
Dog training can be a lot of fun for both of you. Doing tricks is a fun extension of basic obedience training. "Give your paw", somersault, whirling, bow - all these are trick commands that can be learned for the sake of fun and strengthening a warm relationship with the animal.
Dogs love to do tricks because they get a lot of attention from their owner during these moments, not to mention rewards in the form of treats. And people - for the fact that on occasion you can brag to friends and say: "Look what my dog can do!"
Some tricks can take hours or even days to memorize, but the results are well worth the effort. You can teach your dog to climb stairs backwards, you can teach him to skate or bring slippers to the bed.
Basically, training in tricks begins only after the dog learns to perform the basic commands: "To me!", "Sit!", "Stand!", "Lie down!", "Near!".
While the dog is learning, give him a treat for every correct step he takes. Then your praise will often be enough for her.
If you have a puppy in your family, remember that when the environment changes, dogs experience severe nervous tension. Support the pet, feed it yourself, communicate, try to build trust. Do not skimp on care and attention when training and raising a dog, only in this case you will grow up a reliable and loyal four-legged friend, devoted to the owner to the very tip of the tail.