You can consider this question in the narrowly historical sense. Much has already been said about him in theological literature. Much can still be investigated, as this is one of the most important church topics.

If we talk in a concrete current sense of these issues, this topic is extremely painful, because often before committing the sacrament of baptism in the terrible spiritual battle of the Christian world and the world of pagan, their worldview and lifestyles. And the most terrible is that paganism tries to crawl into Christianity, to receive satisfaction from him and the right to life, take the shape of Christian, in many respects without changing himself.

This is a piercing priest, because every father in his ministry faced the formal perception of the sacrament of baptism many times. And how difficult it is to lead this battle with a false pagan consciousness, knows every priest. Each baptism is like a fight. Each baptism is like a battle. Of course, you can surrender, you can take it indifferent. Half an hour - and here is your baby, goodbye. Do what you want! But does I have the right, Ieria God, do this? You need to plow heartfront people. And this is often the same grave case, how to bother Kirkoy to granite. Why so?

Unfortunately, often the modern person of the post-Soviet space refers to baptism only as a good tradition. They say, all sacraments, and I have to pursue a child. Or at best, to protect the baby in the baby. But the deep awareness of the sacrament of baptism does not occur. A person does not want to understand him.

So, what is the sacrament of baptism? Orthodox Catechism gives the following answer: "The baptism is a sacrament in which the believer, with a three-time immersion of the body into the water, with the call of God's father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, dies for the life of the carnal, sinful and is reborn from the Holy Spirit to life spiritual, holy." That is, baptism is not only a beautiful old tradition or just protection for the child. This is a step into the sky. This is a step into open the door of the Church of the Earth and the Church of Heaven. This is taking on themselves and on a child commitment to live in the church, approaching Christ. Live the life of the church.

But does it often happen?

Breasting and not to live church life is about the same as buying a beautiful icon, and then dig a hole and put an image into it. And then for decades, to fall asleep it with every everyday garbage, until the shrine, finally, will not be completely buried under the rubble.

Will the Lord ask us after death or on a terrible court about TAILANT, about the gift of the Spirit of the Holy in the saint, which we got in the sacrament of baptism? Of course, asks. Can a person answer why the shrine was buried in the ground? Probably not. And then cry and grinds teeth.

The sacrament of baptism is the mustard grain that is thrown into our heart soil. In order for it sprout and developing into a beautiful tree, it is necessary to cultivate it with prayer, post, sacraments, lives in the church, the affairs of mercy. And then the birds of heaven (grace of the Holy Spirit) are told sockets on this tree. And it will shoot to the heights.

Therefore, speaking in modern language and for a modern man, the sacrament of baptism is a certain credibility of a person who is given to him in order that he began his personal approach to God. This, if you want, the duty and promise to work for the compassion of the Holy Spirit and for your personal salvation.

And this is especially seen from how the ancient Christians believed to the sacrament ...

These are words synonyms. Catechization translated from the Greek denotes "announcement". An announcement is a study by a person the foundations of the Christian faith before accepting baptism. That is, we see that labor to change itself for the sake of making a shrine of the baptismal began with a man long before participation in this sacrament. He could last from forty days and up to three years. Announced (so called the one who wanted to be baptized and passed to this announcement (training)) had a mentor, often a priest who instructed him in the basics of Christian faith. To prepare for the baptism and raising of people on the basis of Orthodox faith there were whole educational institutions. So, for example, the famous Alexandrian school was born as a public. The main task of this school was the preparation of announced to baptism.

In fact, one of the most famous Orthodox prayers is the symbol of faith - is catechism in a brief form, i.e., the statements of the Orthodox faith. Training in the public period had, as a rule, three degrees, or, expressing modern tongue, three classes. In the first "class", announced on the liturgy in the focus, listening to prayers and reading the Holy Scriptures. In the second "class", they already stood in the temple among the faithful to the Eucharistic canon, and then, dropping into his knees and adopting a blessing from the Primate, in the words "Elica Oblasty, otsey" left the temple. The third "class" was already preparing for baptism. Mass baptism were announced, as a rule, were made for Easter, Pentecost, holy bogue.

From this, we see how ancient Christians seriously treated the sacrament of baptism.

Today the situation has changed. Historical situation. But not the essence of the sacrament. She stayed the same. And the responsibility for the adoption of the sacrament of baptism is the same.

From the baptismal font, God himself perceives a person. So do I have the right to turn away from him? St. John Zlatoust in a conversation on the Gospel of John wrote: "Announced alien faithful. He does not have the same chapter with him, not the same father or the same city, no food, no clothes, nor at home; But everyone is divided. One has everything on earth; Other - in heaven. This king is Christ; That is a sin and the devil. This food is Christ; Togo - rot and drainage. Yes, and clothes for this - the Lord of Angels; That is the work of worms. This city has a sky; Togo - Earth. "

In the sacrament of baptism, we have already entered the sky. It remains only for life spiritually entrenched with God's help in it. So really want to fall from it and again return to the worms, to death and the drainage, when the merciful and loving God reveals our arms to us? Will we turn away from him?

In our modern world, few people are thinking about compliance with church traditions. But for this it is not worth it at all, because a person must decide on his own, it needs it or not. Orthodox education of people of all age categories is of great importance in modern society. It is directed not only to the perception of people's concept of faith in the Lord and approaching him, but also to the vaccination of family values, spiritual enrichment and development of morality. This is very important because the society in which we live, every year degrades, guided by false values.

In order to disseminate spiritual development and improving the quality of religious education, the Synodal Department of the Russian Orthodox Church since the fall of 2005 conducts the development of a special document to which social importance will be applied. According to him, a specialist who received a special education, which is called a catechistant, is responsible for enlightened people in matters of religion. Unblerse people who first hear about this profession fall into bewilderment. To make at least some clarity, let's try to figure out who is such a catechist in the church.

Basic concepts

Catechizer who is

Before you familiarize yourself with the concept of a catechizer, who is and what he does, let's figure it out with the basic definitions of Orthodox education.

The church makes great efforts to enjoy the Christianity and learning people of this religion. To implement these tasks, numerous processes are performed, which were combined under one term - catechization. This word has a Greek origin and translated into Russian denotes the instruction.

To speak in a simple language, the Orthodox Catechization is the obligation of all people designed to preach the pastoral ministry or endowed with the right, to instruct and teach converts Christians. The church, in turn, never ceased to bear faith in the masses, which is its main mission. The main task of the Russian Orthodox Church is to introduce as many people as possible with Christianity and help them gain faith in a single God.

Catechization tasks

Considering the catechization, it is important to understand that Orthodox churching and church life are completely different things. The first implies a educational course that a person passes for a certain period of time when making Christianity, while the second is the communion of believers with God through the Church. Catechization, in turn, is aimed at rendering new believers with all sorts of assistance in this and teach the basics of religion.

Thus, the following basic problems of catechization can be distinguished:

  • development of a man of Christian worldview;
  • admission to the church;
  • Formation of understanding the basis of the Orthodox faith;
  • assistance with the entry and adaptation of converts believers in the Christian community;
  • assistance in personal spiritual development and life;
  • Enlightenment in the basics of canonical and disciplinary norms of church life;
  • Help in gaining their place in life and serving in the church.

The ultimate goal of Catechization is the acquisition by people of Christian worldview, as well as participating in the life of the Church and the active ministry.

Basic principles of catechization

Orthodox literature

It is impossible to define the term Catechizer (who will be considered a little further) without understanding the basic principles of Orthodox education.

Among these can be allocated:

  1. Hierarchy of values ​​- the training of Orthodox religion, as well as the mission of the church and the attachment to her believers should be carried out in accordance with the hierarchy of Christian values.
  2. Christcentricity - the center of the Orthodox religion is Jesus Christ, so Catechization should not only bring a person to understand religion, but also bring it directly to the Lord. Therefore, in the process of learning, each catechist, who will be described later in the article, is obliged to make as much efforts to the learning process, enlightening the converts believers about the life of Christ and the basis of his teachings.
  3. The concentration of life on the Eucharist is the preparation of people who wish to accept Orthodoxy, to the rite of baptism and the Holy Communion.
  4. Community - it is possible to become a full believer only when entering the Christian community.
  5. The non-ideologicalness is religion far from statehood, society, history, culture and other ideological concepts.
  6. Acquisition to church life - every believer should take an active part in the life of the Church to share with all the good news of the resurrection of Christ.
  7. Active openness to the world - it is impossible to love Christ, not loved the neighbor, so every Orthodox believer should be opened not only to the Lord, but also to everyone around.
  8. The formation of true values ​​- Orthodox literature argues that believers should live true, and not false values, so they are obliged to have a clear idea of ​​holiness and sin, as well as good and evil.
  9. Canonism - all believers should have a clear idea of ​​the canonical norms of the Church and clearly stick to them.

Orthodox education and the admission of people to the church are based on the strict observance of the principles listed above.

Pedagogical aspects of catechization

Catechization is based on certain pedagogical aspects necessary to achieve the most effective pedagogical process. In addition, Orthodox education is divided into the following key components: Divine pedagogy, pedagogy of the fishery of God and pedagogy of love.

With this fundamental components of the educational process are:

  • personality;
  • dialogue, love and humility;
  • Voluntary, responsibility, timeliness;
  • competence;
  • desire for fruitfulness;
  • sequence;
  • systemability;
  • modernity.

Also, do not forget that in the process of learning the catechizer (who is this, we will understand a little later) must constantly strive to deepen the understanding of the newest principles of the Orthodox religion.

Catechization audience

Catechizators courses

When building the Orthodox learning process, it is important to distinguish between the catechization audience, to which it is directed. This is very important, since each of them requires an individual approach, without it it will simply be impossible to cause interest in people to religion and approaching them to Christ.

Share the following types of audiences:

  • younger children;
  • Senior children and teenagers;
  • the youth;
  • adults;
  • People with limited physical abilities.

To representatives of each audience are needed a peculiar approach, so the courses of catechisators are aimed at prepare qualified specialists who will not only be able to find a common language with people of various age categories and representatives of social layers, but also to be able to reveal them as a person to It is better to convey the foundations of Christianity.

Who has the right to take part in catechization?

Theological Education is a single mission that priests, deacons, monks and followers of Christianity headed by the bishop. It is important to understand that all approximate to the churches that take an active part in her life are in one degree or another participants in catechization. Moreover, each member of the Christian community should not only serve the church, but also to promote the spread of Orthodox religion, as well as enlighten converts of believers.

Each catechization member uses various ways and methods of enlightenment, which depend on the place occupied by him in the Church. If any of the groups of catechisators ceases to engage in the learning process or pays not enough attention, the experience loses its wealth, integrity and significance. For coordinating the actions of catechisators and the organization of the pedagogical process, shepherds are most responsible, due to their position.

Organizational catechization program

Theological Education

To date, there is still no database for organizing and holding catechisators, but as mentioned at the beginning of the article, since 2005, active works are being conducted on it. This is due to the fact that there was no need for the systematization of Orthodox Education and Enlightenment, and the acquaintance of newly converted believers with religion contributed to the reading of spiritual books.

The main problem of developing the organizational program of Catechization is the lack of full-time positions whose duties will be based on the admission of people to the church and their subsequent training. Today, the enlightenment of Christians are mainly engaged in priests and laity.

The preparation of catechisators in the diocesan educational program should include and unite various teaching processes designed for representatives of various audiences. It should be divided into two directions: teaching children, adolescents and young people, as well as adult enlightenment. The individual category is the people of old age, which at sunset their lives independently decided to join the church. In this case, the form of catechization should not function separately, but together, complementing each other and forming a single educational complex.

To speed up the training of specialists and maximize the effectiveness of education, special literature must be created for catechizers, as well as various methodological benefits at all parish levels.

Stages of catechization

Reading spiritual books

The admission to the church and participation in her life cannot be fragmented and should occur everywhere. This is due to the fact that Christians cannot distinguish between public and family life, professional activities from their faith and religion. Therefore, the process of catechization should be well organized and passed in stages to gradually introduce a person with the foundations of Christianity, bring it to true spiritual values ​​and bring closer to God.

The help of catechisators in this is aimed at the following:

  • Formation of converts fundamental religious values ​​in converts;
  • assistance in the development of physical and spiritual humanities;
  • Help in acquiring the life experience necessary for normal adaptation in modern society and the Christian community.

Thus, the courses of catechisators, which are mandatory for all specialists planning to devote their lives with religious education, are taught that catechization is divided into the following steps:

  1. Preliminary preparation implying one-time conversations and consultations.
  2. An announcement aimed at learning a person the basics of the Christian religion and its preparation for the rite of baptism.
  3. Directly the process of catechization.
  4. Acquisition to participation in church life and worship.

At the same time, an important value is to create in large cities favorable for the catechization of children, youth, youth and family environment. This is necessary so that people who adopted Christianity develop not only spiritually, but also mentally, socially and physically.

Canonical norms of church

Education of baptism

The adoption of the Christian religion consists of the following steps:

  1. Initiation. Conversations are held and the Orthodox literature is being studied with the goal of dating genets with the basics of Christianity.
  2. Preliminary interview. For the first time in the church, they are talking about themselves about themselves, after which the priest reads them a preaching about the Christian path.
  3. Dedication to CateHumen. Those who wish to adopt Christianity receive the blessing and laying of hands, after which they are assigned the title of catechumens of the first stage.
  4. Interview with the bishop, on which Katehumen, ready to accept baptism, tell about their lifestyle and good deeds. It is held in the presence of godparents who play a big role.
  5. Catechization. With future Christians, training is conducted, including the study of the Symbol of Faith, the prayers of the Lord and accommodation in the church community, and their preparation for baptism is carried out. Much attention at this stage is given to moral training of catechumens.
  6. Refraction from Satan and a combination with Christ. The final stage before baptism, confirming the authenticity of the gentlean intentions to appeal to Christianity.
  7. Education. Before or after an explanation of the essence of the sacrament of the Sacrament, the pagans were baptized, after which they were allowed to be admitted to the Holy Communion.

After passing all these stages, the duration of which is several years, a person is officially considered a Christian and can take a full-fledged participation in the life of the church and community.

Terms of adoption of baptism and entry into church life

Above the process of becoming a full-fledged Christian was fully described.

However, it is important here to understand that one desire for the adoption of Orthodox religion is not enough, because to pass the baptism rite, the pagan must comply with a number of criteria, among which the following five are the most important:

  1. Incompatible faith, according to the basics of Christian verbation.
  2. Voluntary and conscious desire to adopt baptism.
  3. Understanding the church provisions of the creed.
  4. Repentance for perfect sins.
  5. Hardness in practical affairs faith.

At the same time, from those who hold the rite of baptism, a daughty concern for people wanting to take Christianity, which is expressed in prayer for them in the rank of liturgy, training the basics of Orthodox religion and the authentication and the forces of their faith before baptism. If you do not adhere to all the canonical norms of the Church, then the converts will be obviously non-church, so they will not possess all the necessary life and spiritual knowledge.

Stratchi for catechizers

The main mission of the church at all times was to open people the good of the resurrection of the Savior and the training of Christians of righteous life, which is able to bring a person to Christ and give salvation to the soul. Therefore, every Orthodox person should strictly observe the instructions of the Church and the commandments of God, written in the Holy Scripture. In all this, one of the key roles is played by catechization aimed at religious training, the formation of the understanding of Christianity and the enlightenment of believers.

In the modern world, each person has the right to decide on his own, believing him in the Lord God or not. Most importantly, it is absolutely in any situation to remain humane and not to hurt anyone.