Symptoms and treatment of pneumonia: atypical, viral and other forms

Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs, with a mandatory defeat of Alveol. The disease usually provoke infectious pathogens, less often viruses. Infected pneumonia is predominantly respiratory, in exceptional cases through blood.

Diseases are subject to older people and children - those who have been weakened by immunity. You can learn about the development of a dangerous disease according to characteristic symptoms. Carefully read them to consult a doctor in time and avoid the effects of pneumonia.

7 distinctive symptoms of pneumonia in adults

In 87% of cases, the patients are diagnosed with a focal form, that is, with the lesion of a small piece of lung. Distinctive symptoms of this form of pathology in adults:

  1. Heat . It appears spontaneously and reaches the mark of 38.5 -40 degrees.

  2. Intoxication . The patient has a feeling of nausea and weakness. Because of the decline, it is difficult for him to get out of bed and engage in habitual affairs.

  3. Cough .Initially, the symptom carries an attacking character and is not accompanied by the release of sputum. After 3-4 days, the cough goes into a productive with a large amount of viscous mucus from the respiratory tract.

  4. Chest pain . Local over the focus of lung damage or appear due to a strong cough .

  5. Sweet breathing . It occurs due to the obstruction of the lungs.

  6. Dyspnea .The symptom appears due to pulmonary failure. It appears after exercise, and at rest.

  7. Increased sweating.

Not in all cases, the patient appears listed symptoms: much depends on the type of pathogen that has fallen into the body. For example, a bird flu virus is the cause of atypical bilateral lung inflammation with a significant lesion of pulmonary fabric in adults. Consider all the symptoms that may occur with atypical pneumonia in adults: no temperature, cough and other characteristic features.

Symptoms atypical pneumonia in adults

Atypical is pneumonia, which is caused by atypical pathogens (such as chlamydia, Klebsiella). It often proceeds without hyperthermia, but complemented by other manifestations.

On the development of the pathological process in the lungs testifies:

Atypical pneumonia is more often observed in children, but in adult older age, the above symptoms without temperature may also be observed. The reasons for the absence of hyperthermia-weakened immunity, which does not fight alien agents. Therefore, people of old age and children are higher than the risk of mortality from the disease.

Hidden forms of the disease are also not accompanied by a cough. But there are a number of symptoms, how to recognize pneumonia in adults. These include:

Pneumonia in different people may differ in symptoms and this means that self-diagnosis of the disease is unacceptable. Only a doctor on the results of instrumental research and laboratory tests can be diagnosed.

Types of pneumonia

They told how to distinguish the disease in symptoms. Now consider which pneumonia in adults depending on the cause of the appearance, symptoms and morphological features. This information will help patients understand that the disease cannot be treated according to one scheme, and doctors - to make effective therapeutic tactics.

By origin, pneumonia is divided into:

  • primary - when, the disease appears independently;

  • secondary - the pathological process in the lungs is developing as a complication of other diseases;

  • aspiration - if the pathogen was listed in the lungs with foreign objects or vomit's masses;

  • postoperative - due to the fixed stay of the patient in the same position;

  • post-traumatic - as a result of injury.

Depending on the type of pathogen, pneumonia is divided into:

Typical pneumonia (viral or pneumococcal) in adults rarely proceeds without temperature and other characteristic symptoms. Therefore, it is easier to determine it than an atypical form.

By morphological features, inflammation of the lungs are divided into:

Pneumonia is still divided into community-friendly and iso-communal. The latter develops a few days after the patient's arrival in the hospital. It has a heavier course, since the pathogens of nosocomial pneumonia have resistance to many types of antibiotics and antimicrobial means. In adults often occurs community-acquired pneumonia without temperature or with its increase to subfebrile marks (37.1 - 37.8 degrees), but there are other symptoms: cough with difficult wetterous, chest pain and shortness of breath.

3 most frequent causes of pneumonia

Provocateurs of the disease are more often pathogenic microorganisms. All of them are divided into 3 large groups:

  • Bacterial. Related to the penetration of pneumococci into the respiratory tract. The disease occurs as the complication of ARVI or chronic disorders in the body.

  • Virus. Bind with infection with a type A virus, rhino or adenovirus. The viral form is characterized by rapid development and in a few days can cause pulmonary failure.

  • Mushroom. The symptoms of fungal (sluggish) pneumonia causes candida fungus and is characterized by the lack of temperature and bright symptoms. The main cause of the pathology of this type is a chronic fungal infection in the body when infection with blood flow falls from the main focus to other organs and systems.

Factors contributing to the development of pneumonia:

  • supercooling;

  • Harmful habits: tobacco and consumption of alcoholic beverages;

  • age older than 65 years;

  • chronic diseases or pathology of the structure of the lungs;

  • Work on harmful production when you have to inhale poisonous gases and pairs.

In the table, see than bacterial pneumonia differs from viral.

Inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia - what is different

Pneumonia and inflammation of the lungs - the same disease. "Pneumonia" is a term that refers to a special vocabulary, and inflammation of the lungs is to generally. Unfortunately, these words are heard every year more and more. Every year it accounts for about 7% of deaths around the world. According to statistics in Russia, the disease stands on 4th place among the causes of non-violent mortality of people (after cancer, injuries and diseases of the heart).

Acute pneumonia is found at 14 people adults from 1000, and in the age group (over 50 years old) - 17-20 people. Despite the development of new drugs and treatment methods, the mortality from pneumonia remains high - up to 9% of the number of all sicks.

Diagnosis of pneumonia: tests and surveys

The diagnosis of lung inflammation is engaged in the therapist or pulmonologist. When making a diagnosis of a doctor, they are focused on the clinical picture of the disease, the results of laboratory and instrumental research.

When listening to the chest, the doctor hears wheezing, weakening breathing. If the pneumonia is one-way, then there is a slowdown in the movement of one share of the lung during inhalation, there is also a rapid breathing, the increase in intercostal intervals.

Laboratory analyzes that the doctor appoints to confirm pneumonia:

  • Common blood test - in adults increases the content of leukocytes and ESO;

  • Common range of sputum - to confirm the inflammatory process in the body;

  • Bacteriological studies of sputum - to identify the type of pathogen of pneumonia and its resistance to antibiotics of different groups.

The instrumental method of diagnostics, which is used for the inflammatory process in the lungs - X-ray of the chest (in a straight and lateral projection). Less frequently, MRI and CT are recommended, for example, if you need to distinguish the inflammation of the lungs from tumor education or tuberculosis.

On the photo x-ray of the lungs at pneumonia.

Treatment of pneumonia: recommendations of doctors

The manifestations of pneumonia in adults are different: with a temperature without, with coughing and shortness of breath. The disease can flow across the scenario, different from what they write in the textbooks. Therefore, to independently treat inflammation of the lungs is unacceptable: it is better to consult with a doctor.

Light forms of pneumonia in adults are treated outpatient, that is, at home, according to the recommendation of the doctor. Heavy and medigatives require hospitalization of the patient to the hospital.

At home, adults with pneumonia need to adhere to the following practitioners:

  • comply with bed;

  • drink more liquid;

  • ventilate the room;

  • eating easily disabled food;

  • Take advisory drugs.

Most effective antibiotics for adults at pneumonia:

  • penicillins (amoxiclav, agginentin) with light diseases of the disease;

  • Macrolides (Clarithromycin, Sumamed, Azithromycin) with atypical pneumonia and intolerance of penicillins;

  • cephalosporins (cephalexin, ceftriaxone) in the serious flow of the inflammatory process;

  • Fluorochinols (Tavanik, Glevo), if the type of pneumonia pathogen is not revealed.

The course of antibiotic therapy in simple cases is from 6-9 days, with severe form of 10-14 days. The effectiveness of therapy is estimated by 3-4 days of reception of drugs. If the patient has no signs of improving the condition (the temperature, shortness of breath and a strong cough are preserved), then the antibiotic change is carried out.

Other medicines used to relieve the symptoms of pneumonia in adults (in syrup, tablets and solutions):

  • Antipyretic (nooofen, nimesulide). They are taken at a temperature of over 38-8.3 degrees.

  • Mukolithic - for wetting the sputum and improving its disheaval (bromgexine, Lazolyvan, Fludico).

  • Solutions for inhalation - sodium chloride, berodal (when breathing). Is it possible to make inhalation at pneumonia, solves the attending physician, since they are not effective in all cases.

From 21 days is a term, how many adults are in the hospital with pneumonia. In addition to antibiotics and symptomatic treatment, the patients make droppers and, if necessary, performed artificial ventilation of the lungs.

Recommendations of doctors for the prevention of pneumonia:

  • do respiratory gymnastics;

  • dressed in weather;

  • in time to treat chronic diseases;

  • comply with personal hygiene rules;

  • Making your vaccinations and children.

Before you hurt from pneumonia, you need to consult a doctor: in adults, as in children, there may be side effects from vaccination. However, complications from vaccination are far less frequently than from the suffered inflammation of the lungs.

What is common between coronavirus and pneumonia?

There is nothing in common between pneumonia and coronavirus: diseases of various development mechanism, pathogens and causes of occurrence. However, there is also a relationship: Pneumonia is one of the most frequent complications of coronavirus, especially in older people (after 65 years). Therefore, this category of citizens is entered into a risk group by coronavirus.

In the photo, see the statistics, how many people died from coronavirus complicated by pneumonia in 2019.

Does the coronavirus always cause pneumonia? Answer this question can be unambiguously negative. People with severe immunity coronavirus can proceed asymptomatic, without complications. However, even in this case, he continues to be contagious for others. The best way to protect against the invisible enemy today is to limit contacts with others.

Pneumonia is a deadly dangerous infectious disease that develops independently or, as a complication of other pathologies, including coronavirus. Light forms of lung inflammation can be treated at home outpatient, using antibiotics and symptomatic preparations. In severe cases, the patient is hospitalized and treated in the hospital. After recovery, the patient is subject to dispensary observation within 1 year.

Bibliography:

  1. Complete-headed pneumonia in adults: practical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and prevention (benefit for doctors) / Chuchalin A.G., Sinopalnikov A.I., Kozlov R.S., Tyurin I.E., S.A. Raman // Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. - 2010 - T. 12, №3.

  2. Pneumonia: complex and unresolved issues of diagnosis and treatment / Novikov Yu.K.// Russian Medical Journal. - 2004 - №21.

Inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia What is pneumonia? The difference between pneumonia and lung inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia at coronavirus How much temperature is held at pneumonia Types of pneumonia Pneumonia without temperature Polycegimentary pneumonia Heat pneumonia Atypical pneumonia Complete pneumonia Viral pneumonia Brewing pneumonia Pneumonia without cough Interstitial pneumonia Pneumatic pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumonia Pneumonia in children Inage pneumonia Treatment of pneumonia How many days is the pneumonia Bilateral pneumonia in an adult. Duration of treatment Clinical recommendations Treatment of pneumonia at home Treatment with folk remedies Preparations for the treatment of pneumonia Antibiotics at pneumonia Breathing exercises For the prevention of pneumonia For rehabilitation after pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia

What is pneumonia? The difference between pneumonia and lung inflammation.

Pneumonia or lung inflammation is a group of diseases in which inflammatory processes develop in the lungs. There is no difference between pneumonia and lung inflammation . These processes most often become the results of infections, viruses, microbes, and pneumonia is often infectious. Irriters are striking the pulmonary tissue, and an inflammatory process develops intensive treatment.

Pneumonia can be a consequence:

  • unrealized colds, ARVI, flu or bronchitis;
  • the effects of viruses, bacteria and fungi, for example, chlamydia, legionell, mycoplasmas;
  • noncomfortable temperature (supercooling of the lungs);
  • the effects of poisonous particles in air or radiation;
  • Complications after an allergic cough.

Symptoms of pneumonia

  • temperature increase;
  • shortness of breath and cough;
  • chills, fever;
  • weakness , headache;
  • complicated inhale, chest pain with deep breath;
  • sweating;
  • Signs of intoxication.

Increased temperatures up to 38-39 degrees - one of the main signs of lung inflammation. It is accompanied by a strong chills, can rise and descend during the day within 1-1.5 degrees. Increased temperature can last up to 10 days.

In many ways, severe weakness, increased sweating, headache, violation of the chair and abdominal pain in pneumonia are associated with the intrication of the body, its poisoning of tissue decay products and toxins.

Today, much attention is paid to psychosomatics of pneumonia. Long stress, weakening the body, chronic diseases and serious overloads of an unprepared organism can become soil for the development of pulmonary diseases and lead to inflammation of the lower respiratory tract.

At the same time, the usual therapy with antibiotics can be unsuccessful, a long recovery period is necessary to normalize the functions of the nervous system and the restoration of the body's forces.

Symptoms of pneumonia at coronavirus

Pneumonia can be caused by a number of viruses, the main of which is called adenoviruses, influenza viruses and coronaviruses (including those dangerous SARS-COV-1, Mers-COV and the SARS-COV-2 pandemic).

If the coronavirus causes pneumonia, usually this process is "launched" by conventional cold symptoms: a temperature of 37.5-38 degrees, pain in the throat, a loss of smell, cough, blessed body and pain in the muscles. As a rule, these symptoms last about 7 days. After that, the temperature rises up to 40 degrees, intoxication is rapidly increasing, shortness of breath and thoracic pain appear. Fever, chills, high sweating and severe weakness - also symptoms of the development of coronavirus infection in pneumonia.

The cough is dry, or with unseen wet, sometimes it can be a rusty shade due to the destruction of capillaries.

One of the distinguishing symptoms of pneumonia at Coronavirus is a limited breath, with a serious course of the disease, almost the impossibility of independent breath. With non-complicated inflammation of the lungs, heavy shortness of breath is observed in the defeat of several pulmonary fractions and is not manifested alone. Pneumonia caused by coronavirus is characterized by a frequency of breathing more than 22, the patient constantly experiences a sense of lack of air, the impossibility of a full breath.

Respiratory failure leads to the sinusiness of the nasolabial triangle, the patients have a forced breathing, in which intercostal muscles are actively involved. Patients seek to accept unusual postures to relieve inhale. Due to the lack of oxygen intake in the brain, patients may experience confusion, panic attacks or fainting.

How much temperature is held at pneumonia

There are two types of temperature at lung inflammation - subfebrile and high.

With pneumonia, the temperature can sharply grow to the indicators of 39-40 degrees and can hold over two weeks. It is important to remember that the decrease in temperature is important to carry out a doctor under observation and fully comply with the individual protocol of antibacterial therapy. Although the high temperature is a symptom, often for pneumonia, a decrease in it is part of the total treatment.

When the body temperature indicators reaches marks in 40 degrees, you need to call an ambulance . This increase in temperature can say that the immunity of the body does not cope with infection, and he needs emergency assistance.

Subfebrile temperature at pneumonia is within 37-38 degrees. In the absence of severe shortness of breath, it is usually not recommended to bring down this temperature. It provides the body with the possibility of an immune response to a viral attack. Increased temperature signals the lack of organism's own resources to suppress viral infection.

The temperature is normalized when the organism's viral lesion is reflected after antibacterial therapy.

Types of pneumonia

Pneumonia without temperature

Pretty dangerous view - asymptomatic pneumonia not manifested with increased temperature. In this case, there may be no symptoms except weakness. The body may not signal the disease even a cough. Often, such a situation is a consequence of a weak immune response and the inability of the body to deal with the virus.

Doctors advise to pay attention to the complexion of a person, often on it is characteristic spotted blush against the background of very pale leather. Human breathing occurs with a whistle. When moving, shortness of breath and a frequent pulse appear. The body is weak, quickly tires, pain in the chest and difficult to breathe.

Asymptomatic pneumonia is dangerous in that the cough is not manifested, and the unnecessary sputum does not go out. The infectious process is stood in the lungs. Often it is a consequence of unrealistic colds or bronchitis.

For diagnosis, the chest radiograph is carried out in 2 projections. The main sign of pneumonia is limited darkening of the pulmonary fabric.

Polycegimentary pneumonia

Two-sided polysegnatory pneumonia strikes several fabric segments of both lungs. Children are often ill under the age of one year and people with low immunity. The first stage of the disease may be asymptomatic or similar to ORVI .

The development of symptoms of bilateral pneumonia is a cough with a springs, shortness of breath, wet wheezes in lungs, chest pain. This clinical picture is accompanied by an increase in temperature to 39-40 degrees, fever, high sweating, tachycardia, headaches and change in consciousness. With a regular pneumonia in bronchi, a wet wet occurs, which is difficult to depart due to the progressive edema.

Heat pneumonia

Acute form of the disease with the flow of the inflammatory process on a limited piece of lung tissue (loss). The symptoms of this form of pneumonia are fever, dry cough or a slight compartment of sputum, pain in the chest, general weakness.

Often, focal pneumonia is a complication of sharp respiratory infections and bronchitis. This diagnosis increases during seasonal ORVI and flu.

The body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees, sometimes it can be normal or have subfebris. Breathing is rapid up to 25-30 units, tachycardia is shown to 110 ° C. in min.

Fever is usually terminated after 3-5 days after the start of antibacterial therapy. The term of removal of symptoms of focal pneumonia is 3-4 weeks.

Atypical pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia is an infectious disease accompanied by inflammation. This lung defeat causes uncharacteric pathogens - viruses, mycoplasma, chlamydia and other numerous infectious agents.

This type of disease differs from the "typical" pneumonia caused by the bacterial cockkalo flora. Symptoms of atypical pneumonia:

  • weakness,
  • Head and muscle pain,
  • dyspnea,
  • sweating
  • fever,
  • cough.

To diagnose atypical pneumonia, it is necessary to determine the pathogen, for which the methods of PCR, reef, culture sowing are used. It is necessary to carry out the lung radiography. After identifying the pathogen, medication is prescribed.

Atypical pneumonia caused by coronavirus is called the "sharp respiratory disease syndrome" (SARS). It is difficult to identify the infectious agent, and therefore for treatment, due to the rapid mutation of the virus.

Infection of atypical pneumonia is airborne droplet. The incubation period is from 3 to 10 days. Depending on the causative agent, atypical pneumonia is divided into:

  • Fever Q,
  • chlamydial pneumonia
  • legionell pneumonia,
  • Heavy acute respiratory syndrome,
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia, etc.

Among the drugs recommended for the treatment of atypical pneumonia, the basis is Ribavirin, which is widely used today for the treatment of pneumonia caused by coronavirus. After the start of treatment, corticosteroids are introduced into the protocol, the blood plasma transfusion is used in severe cases. Oxygen therapy, diuretics are used to prepare for the prevention of pulmonary edema, infusion therapy for removing intoxication, symptomatic treatment from cough and symptoms of respiratory syndrome.

Complete pneumonia

Community-hospital pneumonia is not associated with the stay of the patient in the hospital. This diagnosis is made when the sick was not atponed or sick with pneumonia, no less than 14 days after discharge or no later than two days after hospitalization.

Complete-headed pneumonia develops due to the impact of pathogenic microorganisms on the respiratory tract. This happens with an imaginary history of cardiovascular or metabolic diseases, the unhealthy lifestyle of the patient, weak immunite, the state of old age or with a strong overcooling.

Pneumococci, streptococci, hemophilic stick, staphylococci, chlamydia, legionells, adenoviruses penetrate the human body in living conditions, in places of large accumulation of people with air-droplet, falling into the air when coughing and sneezing From the respiratory tract of the patient.

With reduced immunite and other adverse factors, the drainage system of the lungs is broken, and pathogenic microorganisms remain in them, causing an inflammatory process.

Medical therapy under the protocol associated with identified bacteriological analysis is applied to the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

Viral pneumonia

Viral pneumonia is caused by respiratory viruses, often well familiar to us. These are influenza viruses, paragrippa, enteroviruses, adenoviruses. Therapy of viral pneumonium is the reception of antiviral and symptomatic means.

Symptoms of viral pneumonia sharp:

  • sharp rise in temperature
  • Inxication syndrome,
  • strong productive wet cough,
  • Pain in the lungs.

The diagnosis of viral pneumonia is carried out on the basis of laboratory data.

Often, viral pneumonia develops on an ARVI, in this case, typical symptoms of respiratory disease are aggravated for several days with a strong fever, cyanosis, a cough with a "rusty" color, wheezing in lungs and chest pain.

Viral pneumonia caused by the influenza virus is often double-sided, with focal lung lesions. At the same time, among viral pneumonia, there are often cases of relatively light shape of the disease with moderate symptoms and rapid recovery.

In childhood, viral pneumonia accounts for 90% of all types of this disease. In severe cases, viral pneumonia occurs in children hard:

  • with high temperatures
  • vomit
  • intense symptoms of intoxication,
  • lack of appetite or full eating failure,
  • Strong cough.

In severe cases, inpatient treatment is appointed.

Adults are sick with viral pneumonia less often than children (the percentage of viral pneumonium among other types of disease does not exceed 35%). More often than 65 years old viral pneumonia suffer. The frequency of the disease increases in the autumn-winter period.

Brewing pneumonia

Brewing pneumonia is an acute infectious disease. This diagnosis is made by the defeat of one or more lung fractions when the fibrinous traffic and fibrinous overlaps on Plegre appeared in the alveoli.

The most frequent causative agents of bruboral pneumonia - pneumococci, and the main cause of the disease is to reduce immunity.

The disease begins acutely, with an increase in temperature to 39 degrees, chills, pain in the chest. The dry cough is replaced by the release of "rusty" sputum. Six expressed shortness of breath. Breath hard, with wet and dry wheezes. Subsequently, voice jitter is detected due to impaired breathing. Brewing pneumonia may be accompanied by a violation of cardiac rhythms, a decrease in pressure and strong headaches.

At the end of the acute phase of the disease, respiration is normalized, with a frequent pulse and a decrease in blood pressure can still be disturbed by the patient.

The bruboral inflammation of the lungs is the disease of adults, and it is treated in the hospital in the therapy separation.

Pneumonia without cough

Pneumonia is most often accompanied by a characteristic set of symptoms, however, it happens that the disease occurs in a hidden form. Asymptomatic pneumonia is difficult to diagnose, as the patient cannot recognize the health problem according to explicit features. Latent pneumonia can occur without temperature and even without wheezing in the lungs.

Most often, the hidden pneumonia is ill people over 60 years old.

Violations in the work of the immune system is the main cause of asymptomatic pneumonia. It can also develop due to improper reception of cough drugs during the respiratory disease. With a bad sputum removal, it accumulates in the lungs and becomes a medium for breeding pathogenic flora.

Complication after influenza, bronchitis or ORVI is another cause of asymptomatic pneumonia.

If there is no cough, but there are suspicions of the disease, you need to listen to the following symptoms:

  • strengthening weakness
  • Reduced performance
  • Strong headaches.

In the patient, strong sweating, frequent pulse, shortness of breath and pain in the chest. Temperature can increase.

To detect pneumonia with hidden symptoms, it is necessary to carry out deep diagnostics, which will help determine the stage and severity of the disease.

Interstitial pneumonia

Interstitial pneumonia is an inflammatory process, in which the alveoli walls and the parenchyma junction tissue suffer. Disease cause infectious agents:

  • Mycoplasma,
  • chlamydia
  • Pneumocists,
  • Legionella
  • Respiratory viruses
  • Herpes virus.

Also, interstitial pneumonia can be a reaction to dust. Defeat with interstitial pneumonia focal or diffuse, and it can cover a share or everything easy.

Symptoms of the disease:

  • dyspnea,
  • dry cough,
  • Pain in the chest,
  • temperature up to 38 degrees,
  • Cardiopulmonary failure.

The disease is determined using CT and laboratory diagnostics.

The disease can occur hard, when it is high, the likelihood of lung fibrosis. In the risk group:

  • Smokers,
  • HIV-infected
  • People with alcoholism.

Interstitial pneumonia can flow in chronic form (more than 12 months), all this time the patient is limited in activity, suffers from severe breath, high fatigue. Often there is a strong weight loss.

Treatment includes oxygen therapy, corticosteroids, cytostatics. By reducing the respiratory function, the IVL is prescribed.

Pneumatic pneumonia

Pneumatic pneumonia refers to atypical pneumonia. Her infectious agents - Simple microorganisms Pneumocists. The disease is transmitted by air-droplet and often develops in people with an affected immune system.

In the risk risk group of pneumatic pneumonia:

  • elderly people,
  • Sick HIV,
  • tuberculosis
  • Patients with blood diseases,
  • Patients taking immunosuppressants.

The disease may have relapses. In particular, in patients with HIV infection in the AIDS stage, the likelihood of re-illness is 25%.

Pneumocists fall into the body through the respiratory tract, actively multiply, provoke the appearance of a large amount of mucus and exchange products. Finding into the blood, infectious agents provoke the formation of specific antibodies. Alveola are amazed, gas exchange is broken. In conditions of respiratory failure, fibrosis of lungs is developing, subsequently - emphysema and pneumothorax.

Symptoms of the disease first look like signs like ARVI or Larygitis. The period of the first stage is up to 10 days. Weakness, strong cough, decreased body weight in the second stage of the disease is enhanced by a strong breath. Skin covers acquire a shiny shade. Cough becomes productive with difficult wetting.

The third stage brings relief symptoms, but wheezes in the lungs and symptoms of weakness can still be maintained.

Treatment of pneumatic pneumonia occurs in the hospital and includes antibacterial and symptomatic treatment.

Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is an atypical pulmonary infection. Infectious agent - Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia is characterized by:

  • obsessive cough
  • subfebilitation
  • pain in the chest and muscular pains,
  • Aclays and violations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.

Mycoplasma pneumonia more often sick children, teens and adults up to 35 years old.

With a high prevalence of the disease, mycoplasma is malpressible in external conditions. They react to change in temperature (in particular, on heating), do not grow in dry environments.

These microorganisms often become causes of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, they are also able to cause a respiratory pathology (otitis, encephalitis, meningitis, anemia).

The incubation period in mycoplasma pneumonia is usually 12-14 days. The disease rarely begins acutely, more often is the appearance of symptoms of laryngitis, less often - bronchitis. Weakness, sweating, temperature rise to 38 degrees also accompanies the beginning of the disease.

Complications of mycoplasma pneumonia can be:

  • Stevens-Johnson's syndrome,
  • Hyien Barre Syndrome,
  • myelitis,
  • encephalitis,
  • meningitis.

Recognizing the disease at an early stage, it can be cured for two or three weeks. Macrolids, fluoroquinolones, bright agents, expectorant means are prescribed for treatment, immunomodulators, physiotics, massages, respiratory gymnastics.

Pneumonia in children

Pneumonia in children is an acute infectious damage to the lungs. She proceeds short. Cough and symptoms of intoxication.

The intrauterine infection of pneumonia occurs due to herpes viruses, chlamydia. Medicine already known cases of intrauterine pneumonia caused by coronavirus.

In the first year of life, the sorcerer and hemophilic wand. Preschoolers are sick pneumonia, the reason for which is:

  • infection with hemophilic and intestinal chopsticks,
  • Golden Staphylococcus
  • Sinnaya wand.

Schoolchildren more often sick atypical pneumonia.

In the risk risk group of pneumonia - children with immunodeficiency, suffering stress, cooling or suffering from chronic infectious diseases.

Treatment of pneumonia in children consists of antibiotics, antipyretic, expectorant, bronchoditics. After the acute phase and during the rehabilitation period, physiotherapy, massage and therapeutic physical education are shown.

Children's pneumonia in case of timely detection is treated at home, and serious cases in the hospital, and quite successful. At children's pneumonia, hospitalization is not always shown, and if parents will continue to receive receptions, children's pneumonia is cured within 2-3 weeks.

Inage pneumonia

Pneumonia or not - depends on its type and causes of the disease. At the same time, directly pneumonia cannot be infected, but the pathogenic microflora, penetrating another person in the body, can become a source of inflammatory process, in that force and pneumonia.

Inflammation of the lungs can cause bacteria, viruses, fungi, simplest. The greatest danger to others, the person is at the initial stage of the disease, when coughing and the cough is distinguished by infectious agents.

But it is important to remember that even when infected, the development of the inflammatory process may not happen. Strong immunity does not give to develop pneumonia, and the whole struggle with the infectious agent occurs in the upper respiratory tract. In other words, the same infectious agent may cause different reactions from different people: from light ARVI to severe pneumonia.

The risk of sick pneumonia is present more:

  • in children up to 1.5 years,
  • old people,
  • those who suffer immunodeficiency
  • suffering from chronic pathologies of the cardiovascular system, bronchi and lungs, kidneys,
  • Diabetic
  • allergy
  • Smokers.

It is important to remember, some types of pneumonia are not contagious. These are the types of disease that are not related to infection. For example, the inflammation of the lungs, which arose due to the stagnation of the liquid in the respiratory tract.

Treatment of pneumonia

How many days is the pneumonia

The duration of treatment depends on the root causes of pneumonia. Pneumococcal infection can be defeated in 7 days. Legionells or staphylococcus cause pneumonia that needs to be treated at least three weeks. The cynical wand will force therapy to forty-two days. Complicated pneumonia has to be treated until two months.

The focal pneumonia is treated faster than secrecy. In the first case, the clinical picture becomes favorable for ten days, in the second treatment takes about a month.

Bilateral pneumonia in an adult. Duration of treatment

In predicting the treatment of bilateral pneumonia, an adult should always take into account chronic diseases, the state of immunity and causes of the disease. Patients with severe damage to metabolism, diabetes mellitus, high degree of hypertension, heart diseases are chances of longer treatment and long rehabilitation after pneumonia. The clinical picture can detect the symptoms of pneumonia to two months from the beginning of therapy, while the strong body can cure in one month.

Clinical recommendations

The latest clinical recommendations for the treatment of pneumonia are contained in the letter of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of March 6, 2020 N 30-4 / I2-2702 "On the algorithm for the provision of medical assistance to the adult population with community-hospital pneumonia." The document is relevant, and determines the procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of all types of community-hospital pneumonia (those that have developed outside the hospital, or diagnosed in the first 48 hours from the moment of hospitalization). The letter determines the rules of hospitalization in pneumonia, the deadlines for the start of antibacterial therapy after the diagnosis, the classification of the forms of the disease according to the severity, based on the symptoms.

Clinical recommendations give the most detailed information on the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia, but they are addressed to doctors and medical personnel. Everyone can find on the network and read them to raise awareness of the disease, but In no case should not be engaged in self-diagnosis and self-treatment for prescribed protocols of antibacterial therapy . At the first signs of ailment, you should consult a doctor.

Treatment of pneumonia at home

Clinical recommendations give clear criteria for hospitalizing patients with pneumonia. Patients with a light form of the disease and many of the pneumonia suffering from the middle severity without burdened history are home treatment.

The main rules for the treatment of pneumonia at home:

  • compliance with the protocol of antibacterial therapy;
  • compliance with the beddown first days and abundant drink for removing the symptoms of intoxication;
  • the need to get up every 5-6 hours and slightly move up to 20 minutes;
  • After the normalization of the clinical picture, short walks are shown;
  • Full, but light food;
  • Complete smoking;
  • Support for air humidity in the room within 60-70%.

Treatment with folk remedies

Many in the treatment of pneumonia drugs are resorting to people supporting treatment with funds. The most common of them are medicinal herbs. Herbraises help expectoration, reduce the inflammatory process, remove bronchospasms.

Herbs reduce the swelling and possess a diuretic effect, activate the activity of the immune system, which is well supported by the therapeutic course.

It is useful to drink drinks with a rich content of vitamin C: a decoction of rosehip, cranberries, lingers, viburnum.

In the treatment of pneumonia, garlic, honey, are used by folk remedies, make various compresses and tincture. With the abundance of folk recipes for the treatment of pneumonia it is important to remember that Consultation with the doctor is necessary in each case of their application . Each folk remedy should be built into therapy and do not interfere with its successful flow. Therefore, if you wish to resort to the help of traditional medicine, it is worth not overloading the body and follow the principles of rationality and consistency with the main protocol of treatment.

Preparations for the treatment of pneumonia

Antibiotics at pneumonia

Treatment of patients with a light form of pneumonia takes place at home. It is usually possible to cure it with pills or suspensions. The doctor prescribes the antibiotics of the β-lactam row (amoxicillin, amuxyne, solutab). For older patients or with severe chronic diseases, protected penicillins and fluoroquinolones are prescribed (amoxiclav, Flemoclav Soluteab, Aveoks).

For the treatment of patients with severe and extremely severe pneumonia, drugs III and IV generations are used, which have a bactericidal effect, fully destroying the cells of the pathogen. Among the representatives of cephalosporins III generation are oral and parenteral forms. In the first subgroup, supraks are common in capsules and suspensions, cedaxes in capsules and spectroseph in capsules, cepditogen, ceftazidim, cefoperazone

To destroy mycoplasm at pneumonia, antibiotics of macrolides are suitable against atypical flora, tetracyclines - reserve drugs, doxycycline (Unidox Solutab).

Adequate therapy of pneumonia can not do without antibiotics. This is the only modern and effective measure to eliminate the cause of the disease - microorganisms. All prescriptions of drugs must be controlled by the doctor, self-medium is fraught with the aggravation of the course of the disease and the development of the immunity of bacterial cells to the effects of antibiotics.

Breathing exercises

For the prevention of pneumonia

Today, the prevention of pneumonia is one of the most important in the complex of health practices and care for the state of the human body. It became obvious that lung damage is a real threat, much more massive and relevant than it seemed recently many of us. The coronavirus pandemic made adjustments not only to our lifestyle, but also made the most relevant care of our respiratory system, about its healthy and full-fledged state.

One of the most efficient ways of preventing pneumonia is regular respiratory training with a simulator "Samolader". And there are reasonable causes and many years of indisputable confirmation.

The breathing exercises strengthen the respiratory muscles, which increase the mobility of the chest and the diaphragm. Effective movements of the respiratory muscles increase the amount of chest and lungs. This provides maximum driving ventilation and air circulation in the alveoli and increases the use of oxygen use in the lungs and its admission to the tissues.

Maintaining normal light volumes and regular respiratory tracting forms the right respiratory rhythm. As a result, the respiratory frequency is normalized, its minute volume and other indicators that are violated due to stress, hypodynamine, chronic diseases. Physiologically correct breathing is preserved for a long time.

Breathing training maintain elasticity of light tissue. This increases the vital capacity of the lungs, prevents the development of fibrosis and other changes in light tissue. CO2 eliminates the spasm of the bronchi, which also increases the effectiveness of breathing.

Breathing training increases the effectiveness of a small circle of blood circulation. This is especially important for the people of old age, because one of the frequent causes of the pneumonia of the elderly - blood in a small circle.

As a result of the restoration of the functions of the respiratory system and blood circulation, a decrease in the inflammatory process occurs, the prevention of stagnant phenomena in bronchops and lungs and resorption of mucus and exudate is carried out.

In addition, the "self-sharp" compensates for the lack of physical activity, and respiratory training, as well as exercise, contribute to the production of natural antioxidant (superoxiddismutase) impeding the development of pneumonia.

All these arguments are the result of deep numerous studies related to the study of the effects of respiratory training with the "self-coach" on human lungs and the prevention of pneumonia, as well as the experience of people of different ages and a different level of health.

Today, millions of people from different countries of the world are trained with "self-coastal" for the sake of preventing the development of pneumonia - one of the main dangers for the body during the pandemic period.

If you want to get one of the most effective ways of care about your respiratory system, an indispensable assistant for the prevention of pneumonia, acquire the respiratory simulator "Samolader". Many years of experience proved its effectiveness, availability and the highest results in maintaining the health of the lungs.

For rehabilitation after pneumonia

In a difficult period of threats to a high viral load on the body, it is important to know how to quickly return the shape after pneumonia and give your easy to earn money again. First, it is important to comply with general rules for concerns about yourself and your health. Sleep at least 8 o'clock at night and a couple of hours in the afternoon, well eat, not forgetting about vitamins A, B, C and calcium, to air the room every three hours.

Special attention should be paid to your light, devote time to respiratory training to improve the pulmonary muscles. Due to the respiratory training with the simulator "Samozdrav" will be dissolved exudate, the wet branch will be easier, the respiratory tract will be cleaned, the pulmonary fabric will retain health and elasticity, normalizes the tissue exchange and inxication will be eliminated, accompanying the acute stage of the disease. Healthy breathing and normal amount of breath will be restored, the sword will leave due to the normalization of the level of oxygen in the body,

In the process of breathing training with the simulator "Samolader", rehabilitation after inflammation of the lungs will be successful, will pass quickly and comfortably, and you will be able to regain their vital energy in a natural way - training through proper and healthy breathing.

Types of pneumonia

Primary This means that the disease is independent

Secondary Pneumonia is a complication obtained during another disease.

Radiation Inflammation developed against the background of chemotherapy

Posttraumatic The disease arose due to injury

Types of lung inflammation

The disease varies in several factors.

Symptoms of the disease

Symptoms can be varied depending on the type of disease, the individual characteristics of the body or your age.

The main common signs of lung inflammation are:

  • general weakness
  • drowsiness,
  • cough,
  • Increased temperature
  • Difficult breathing.
Inflammation of the lungs in children

To make an appointment with a doctor

If you or your loved ones, these or similar signs of the disease are observed, consult a doctor immediately. You can see an experienced pulmonologist here:

At-risk groups

The risk group includes infants, children under 5 years old, elderly from 65 and older, people suffering from asthma and other diseases of lungs, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases.

Also, the probability of getting sick increases smoking and other bad habits.

Pneumonia in adults

Facts about the disease

Common myths about lung inflammation

Myth # 1: With properly selected treatment, you can recover in a few days. In fact, in a few days you can get rid of the symptoms, but completely overcome the disease during this time will not succeed. Treatment will take at least 21 days.

Myth # 2: Get rid of cough with pneumonia helps warming up. In fact, this myth is dangerous. Warming off will not only help, but also worsen the state.

Myth number 3: When inflammation, cough and temperature will necessarily. In fact, the disease can pass almost asymptomatic. This can occur due to weakened immunity or individual characteristics of the body.

Myth №4: The disease is dangerous only for children and the elderly. In fact: Yes, these categories refer to the risk group, but the disease is dangerous for everyone. Especially if you have chronic diseases.

How to distinguish the inflammation of the lungs from ARVI, influenza and bronchitis

  1. Sweating increased noticeably. You are thrown into the heat, then in the cold. Moreover, this state may not be associated with fluctuations of body temperature.
  2. You have become better, and a few days later the condition has deteriorated much. This is the reaction of the body to inflammation.
  3. You have completely or partially disappeted. Moreover, the view and smell of food can start calling disgust and even vomit.
  4. You have a chest pain. This, like the difficulty of breathing, can be a sign of pulmonary edema.
  5. Mussels acquired a blue or purple shade. This may happen due to lack of oxygen in the blood.
  6. Pulse flies or "jumps". This symptom is also associated with a lack of oxygen.

When need to consult a doctor immediately

Urgently cause a doctor against the background of common symptoms, it is necessary if you have the following signs:

  • Breathing more frequent (more than one breath in 2 seconds)
  • The pressure dropped to 90 to 60 or more.
  • Temperature of the body exceeded 38.5.
  • There was a confusion of consciousness.
  • You get dark in your eyes and you feel a pre-corrosive condition

Treatment of lung inflammation

Treat pneumonia by folk remedies is not only useless, but also dangerous for life. Correctly select drugs that will help to recover, only a qualified doctor.

You will be prescribed antibiotics and preparations for symptomatic state correction. To determine which medicines to assign, you will be asked to pass the following tests:

  • general blood analysis,
  • general urine analysis,
  • Clinical analysis of sputum.

Prevention

The overall strengthening of immunity will help reduce the risk of infection. Also, not to get sick try to lead a healthy lifestyle: stick to the right nutrition, play sports, harden.

What if you transferred pneumonia

  1. Try to place more often and walk more. It is also recommended to run running.
  2. Make a breathing gymnastics: delay breathing on a deep breath. Doing the exercise is best in a position sitting in a well-wedrid room or on the street and repeat it 5-10 times in a row.
  3. Include fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet.
  4. Drink more water - from 1.5 to 2.5 liters per day depending on body weight.
  5. Try not to overheat and not to translate.
  6. Avoid stress and pour, it is better to sleep at least 8 hours a day.

Overview

Pneumonia (lung inflammation) is inflammation of the fabric in one or both light caused by infection.

At the end of the breathing tubes in the lungs (alveolar strokes) there are tiny bags filled with air (alveoli) collected in bundles. With pneumonia, these bags are inflamed and filled with liquid.

How are the human alveoli with pneumonia

The most common symptoms of pneumonia:

  • cough;
  • heat;
  • labored breathing.

The most common cause of pneumonia is a pneumococcal infection, however there are many other types of bacteria and viruses causing pneumonia.

Patients with a light form of pneumonia are usually treated at home. They give antibiotics, abundant drink and provide peace. People with good health usually recover without any consequences.

In patients with other diseases, pneumonia can be in severe, and they may need treatment in the hospital. This is due to the fact that pneumonia can give complications, which, depending on the state of health and the age of the patient, can even lead to a fatal outcome.

According to various data in Russia, pneumonia sicks every year 1-2 million people. People often sick pneumonia in autumn and winter. Mortality from community-hospital pneumoniums in Russia is of different data from 1% to 5%, but among patients requiring hospitalization and in older people, this indicator is many times more. Pneumonia can be sick at any age.

Symptoms of pneumonia

Symptoms of pneumonia can develop very quickly (for 24 to 48 hours) or relatively slowly, within a few days. The manifestations of the disease differ and can be similar to the symptoms of other respiratory infections, such as acute bronchitis.

For pneumonia is characterized by cough. It may be dry or accompanied by the release of sputum (thick mucus) of yellow, green, brownish color or even bleeding.

Other common symptoms:

  • Difficult breathing - the breaths are frequent and shallow, possibly shortness of breath even during rest;
  • heart palpitations;
  • a strong increase in body temperature;
  • common poor well-being;
  • sweating and chills;
  • lack of appetite;
  • Pain in the chest.

Among the less common symptoms are the following:

  • cough with blood (hemopying);
  • headaches;
  • fatigue;
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • whistling breathing;
  • pain in the joints and muscles;
  • Loss of orientation in time and space (especially in the elderly).

If you have discovered the symptoms of pneumonia, consult a doctor to diagnose. If you have pronounced symptoms, in particular, rapid breathing, pain or disorientation in space, consult a doctor immediately.

Causes of pneumonia

The most common cause of pneumonia is infection, usually bacterial origin.

However, pneumonia causes various types of bacteria, viruses and (occasionally) fungi, depending on where pneumonia began. For example, microorganisms causing pneumonia, praised in the hospital, differ from those that can cause it in ordinary life.

Microorganisms that cause infection usually fall into the lungs when inhaled. In rare cases, pneumonia can be caused by infection in another body part. Then the pathogen of pneumonia penetrates into the lungs through blood.

Below in detail the four types of pneumonia are described.

Bacterial pneumonia

The most common cause of pneumonia in adults - Bacteria Streptococcus Pneumoniae. This form of pneumonia is sometimes called pneumococcal.

Less often, the causative agents of pneumonia are other types of bacteria, including:

  • Haemophilus influenzae;
  • Staphylococcus aureus;
  • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (outbreaks of morbidity occur on average every 4-7 years, usually among children and young people).

In very rare cases, pneumonia causes the following bacteria:

  • Chlamydophila Psittaci: This bacterium is a rare form of pneumonia, which is called ornithosis or psitactosis, which is transmitted to people from infected birds, such as pigeons, canary, long-tailed and wavy parrots (this form of pneumonia is also called a parrot disease or a parrot fever);
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae;
  • Legionella Pneumophila: Causes Legionells, or "Legionnaire Disease", an unusual form of pneumonia.

Viral pneumonia Possible way of transferring pneumonia

Viruses can also cause pneumonia, most often it is a respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) and sometimes influenza virus type A or B. Viruses are most often becoming pathogens of pneumonia in young children.

Aspiration pneumonia

In rare cases, the cause of pneumonia is getting into the lungs

  • vomiting;
  • foreign bodies, such as peanuts;
  • harmful substance, such as smoke or chemical.

An inhaled object or substance causes irritation of the lungs or damages them. This phenomenon is called "aspiration pneumonia."

Fungal pneumonia

Pneumonia caused by fungal infection of the lungs is rarely found in people with strong health. More often, it affects people with a weakened immune system (see below). Although fungal pneumonia is rare, people travel more often traveling to the places where this type of infection is more common: individual regions of the United States, Mexico, South America and Africa.

Some medical names of fungal pneumonia: histoplasmosis, cocidioidomycosis and blastomicosis.

Risk Groups for Lung Inflammation

People in the following groups are more susceptible to risk of pneumonia disease:

  • Breast babies and young children;
  • elderly people;
  • smokers;
  • patients with other diseases;
  • People with a weakened immunity.

Diseases increasing the likelihood of pneumonia disease:

  • Other lung diseases, such as asthma or fibrosis (fibrous-cystic degeneration or cystic fibrosis);
  • heart diseases;
  • diseases of the kidneys and liver;
  • Weed immunity.

Your immunity can weaken:

  • recently suffered disease, such as influenza;
  • cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy;
  • Some medicines taken after the transplantation of the body (they are specifically taken to weaken the immune system, thereby reducing the rehabilitation of the transplanted organ);
  • HIV or AIDS.

Diagnosis of pneumonia

The doctor often can diagnose pneumonia, interviewing you about the symptoms and inspected the chest. In some cases, additional research may be required. Sometimes pneumonia is difficult to diagnose, as many symptoms coincide with other diseases, such as colds, bronchitis and asthma.

To make a diagnosis, the doctor may first ask:

  • Do you breathe more often than usual;
  • Do you suffer from shortness of breath (you feel the fattened);
  • How long do you have a cough;
  • Expectors are you sputum, and what color is it;
  • Chest pains in breathe or exhale are enhanced.

The doctor will most likely measure the temperature to you and listens to the stethoscope in front and behind, to determine whether characteristic crackling or rattling sounds are heard. It can also listen to your chest, tapping on it. If your lungs are filled with liquid, they make a sound, which differs from the wrong, healthy lungs.

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will send you to the chest x-ray and other studies. The chest x-ray can show how much your lungs are amazed. X-ray also helps the doctor to distinguish pneumonia from other infectious diseases of the lungs, for example, bronchitis. In addition, a sputum analysis and blood test is carried out. Analysis of sputum or blood samples helps determine the cause of infection - bacterium or virus.

Screening on lung cancer

Although it is rarely found, but pneumonia can be a symptom of hidden lung cancer in smokers and people over the age of 50. If you fall into one of these groups, your doctor can direct you to the chest x-ray. Lung cancer on X-ray usually looks like a lot of "white-gray".

If X-ray examination has not revealed cancer, it is recommended to make a re-image after 6 weeks. This is done in order to accurately make sure that with your lungs are all right.

Treatment of pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs)

Patients with a light form of pneumonia are usually successfully treated at home. They give antibiotics, abundant drinking and provide complete peace. In more severe cases, treatment may be required in the hospital.

Treatment of inflammation of light houses (outpatient)

Cough can last another 2-3 weeks after the end of the course of antibiotics, and the feeling of fatigue can remain even longer, because your body will be recovered after the disease. If the symptoms are not started to take place within two days after the start of treatment, report it to your doctor. The effect of treatment may not be for the following reasons:

  • Bacteria causing an infection may be resistant to those antibiotics that you have taken - your doctor can register you another antibiotic in return or in addition to the first;
  • The infection can cause a virus, and not bacterium - antibiotics do not act on viruses, and the immune system of your body will have to struggle with a viral infection, producing antibodies.

To facilitate the symptoms of pneumonia, you can take painful, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. They will help relieve pain and knock down a high temperature. You should not take ibuprofen if you have:

  • Allergies to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs);
  • Asthma, kidney disease, stomach ulcer or digestion disruption.

It is not recommended to take a cough medicine that hovering the cough reflex (codeine, libeksin, etc.). Cough helps to clean the lungs from sputum, so if you stop the cough, the infection can remain in the body longer. In addition, there is little evidence that the cough funds are effective. Warm drink with honey and lemon will help to remove discomfort caused by cough. Drink a lot of fluid to prevent dehydration, and a lot of rest to your body recover.

If you smoke, now it is ever important to quit smoking, as it harms your light.

Pneumonia is rarely transmitted from one person to another, so the patient can be surrounded by people, including family members. However, people with a weakened immune system should avoid contact with pneumonia patients before it starts to get better.

After facilitating the symptoms, you may need some time for complete recovery. At the same time, the cough can be preserved. If it bothers you, talk to your attending physician.

Treatment of pneumonia in hospital (stationary)

With severe symptoms, you may need to go to the hospital for treatment. Treatment in the hospital will include the reception of antibiotics and fluids intravenously through the dropper and / or the supply of oxygen through the oxygen mask to relieve respiration.

In very severe cases of pneumonia, air supply to the lungs can be carried out through the device for artificial ventilation of the lungs in the resuscitation and intensive therapy.

The doctor will most likely ask you to come again after 6 weeks after the start of taking antibiotics. In some cases, it can prescribe repeated studies, for example, an x-ray of the chest if:

  • Symptoms did not appear less;
  • Symptoms returned;
  • Do you smoke;
  • You are over 50 years old.

Complications of pneumonia

Complications at pneumonia are more often observed in the elderly, small children and people with some chronic diseases, for example, diabetes. In case of complications, you will be guided by treatment to the hospital.

The most common complications for pneumonia - pleurisy, lung abscess and blood infection (sepsis) are described below.

Scheme of the development of inflammation of the pleura

Pleurisy - Inflammation of the pleura, thin shell between the lungs and chest. In more rare cases, liquid can accumulate between the lungs and walls of the chest cavity. This phenomenon is called "pleural effusion". Pleural effusion is observed by half of people treated from pneumonia in the hospital.

Liquid can put pressure on the lungs, makes it difficult to breathe. Pleural effusion usually passes as pneumonia treatment. Approximately in one of 10 cases of treatment of pneumonia in the hospital there is a liquid in the pleural cavity by bacteria, which causes the accumulation of pus - the so-called empy.

Typically, purulent releases are displayed using a needle or thin tube. In the most difficult cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove pus and eliminate the harm caused by Plegre and easy.

Abscess light - A rare complication of pneumonia, which most often happens in people with already existing serious diseases or in persons abusing alcohol. The abscess of the lung is filling the cavity in the lung tissues. Wet excavation with an unpleasant smell, swelling of the fingers and legs - the symptoms of the lung abscess.

Abscesses are often treated with antibiotics. Usually prescribed the course of antibiotics intravenously, then the reception of antibiotics in the form of tablets for 4-6 weeks. Most patients have improved well-being for 3-4 days. It is important not to throw the prescribed course of antibiotics, even if you feel completely healthy to avoid re-infection of the lungs. Approximately one of 10 people with lung abscess requires an operation to pump a pus from an abscess or removing the affected part of the lung.

Blood poisoning - Another rare and severe complication of pneumonia, also known as sepsis. Sensis symptoms:

  • High body temperature (heat) - 38º C or higher;
  • Hardness and breathing;
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension), in which dizziness is felt in the vertical position of the body;
  • change behavior, for example, disorientation in space and time;
  • reduced urination;
  • Cold, pale and sticky leather;
  • loss of consciousness.

When infecting blood, the infection may spread to other organs, such as:

  • External brain shells (meningitis);
  • Abdominal shell (peritonitis);
  • The inner sheath of the heart (endocarditis);
  • joints (septic arthritis).

These types of infection are also called "metastatic infections" (from the word "metastasis" - a remote secondary center of the pathological process) and usually occur hard. For their treatment, large doses of antibiotics intravenously prescribe.

What doctor to contact with pneumonia?

With the help of the service, you can find a good therapist or pediatrician who are usually involved in diagnosing and outpatient treatment of lung inflammation. If you are offered hospitalization, you can independently choose an infectious hospital.

How not to infect others at pneumonia

Stop the spread of microorganisms from you to other people can be compliance with hygiene rules. For example, when coughing or sneezing, close the mouth and the nose with a disposable handkerchief. Severate used disposable handkerchiefs used in the garbage bucket or toilet - microorganisms can live a few hours after the nasal or mouth cavity leaves. We wash your hands regularly to prevent the transmission of pathogens to other people and their transfer to various items.

To protect against pneumonia, people from high-risk groups should make vaccinations. The following vaccinations are recommended:

  • Village from pneumococcus (pneumococcal vaccine);
  • Influenza vaccination.

Smoking, alcohol abuse and drug use intravenously can increase the likelihood of pneumonia. Smoking harms your lung, and as a result they become more susceptible to infection. Therefore, if you smoke, the best way to prevent pneumonia is to quit smoking.

There is evidence that the non-harmony and long-term use of alcohol weakens the natural mechanisms of protection of the lungs from infections, which makes them more susceptible to pneumonia. According to one study, 45% of people hospitalized with the diagnosis of pneumonia, abused alcohol.

Alcohol abuse is a regular use of over permissible norm. Under regular use it is understood as the admission of alcoholic beverages every day or most of the days of the week. Alcohol abuse not only increases the risk of pneumonia, but also increases the likelihood that it will leak in a more severe form. According to statistics, the likelihood of death from pneumonia among those abusing alcohol, from 3 to 7 times higher than on average in the population.

What is pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs) and how to recognize its symptoms. Causes of lung inflammation: viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Treatment and prevention measures at home.

What is pneumonia, lung inflammation?

Pneumonia (or inflammation of the lungs) is an inflammatory disease with lung damage. Heavy pneumonia is the most common diagnosis of COVID-19 heavy form.

There are several varieties of pneumonia:

  • Bacterial pneumonia - the reason is most often the bacteria of streptococcus;
  • Viral pneumonia provoked by viral infection, coronairus, for example, or influenza virus;
  • Aspiration pneumonia - associated with the ingress of the foreign body into the lungs, for example a piece of food, which leads to inflammation;
  • Fungal pneumonia caused by lesions of lungs fungus, such as Coccidioides.

Regardless of the type of symptoms, it is similar.

The first symptoms of pneumonia

  1. - cough.
  2. - Hard breath, shortness of breath.
  3. - Green or rusty wet.
  4. - Pain in the chest when inhaling (pleurisy).
  5. - lack of oxygen, rapid breathing.
  6. - Heart palpitations.
  7. - chills.
  8. - Fatigue.
  9. - Muscle pain.
  10. - sweating.
  11. - Nausea.
  12. - diarrhea.
The first symptoms of pneumonia resemble signs of influenza, with high temperatures and highlighting wet cough

How to distinguish influenza pneumonia

Pneumonia, as a rule, is a consequence of a viral disease, such as influenza or cowid. High temperature and chills are characteristic of both diseases. Symptoms of inflammation are associated with the lesion of the lungs when the body is not enough oxygen. Permanent lack of oxygen may damage various organs, causing renal failure, heart failure and other life-threatening conditions.

Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) is distinguished by pain in the lungs, wheezing with inhale, more difficulty breathing.

Effective drugs from pneumonia

Effective medicine from pneumonia is selected depending on the cause of infection.

Viral pneumonia Vaccination to some extent can reduce the likelihood of a disease from a viral infection and facilitate the course of the disease, in the case of infection. In some cases, with viral pneumonia, the doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to reduce viral activity. This treatment is usually most efficient when the virus is at an early stage of infection of the body.

Vaccination remains one of the best funds from pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia Antibiotics are the main way to deal with the type of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae bacteria. This type of pneumonia usually occurs heavily than viral pneumonia.

Fungal pneumonia Fungal species of pneumonia are treated with antifungal drugs. This type of lung inflammation meets less frequently.

Healthy habits and strong health - the basis of an easily transferred disease. With proper care, pneumonia can be cured at home.

Increased risk groups

It should be treated with a lot of caution to the disease of those belonging to a higher risk group.

According to WHO, the increased risk group includes:

  • People over the age of 65;
  • Children under 5 years old;
  • Persons with chronic health impairment (such as chronic heart disease, lungs and kidney, metabolic disorders, disorders of neurological development, liver and blood disease);
  • People with weakened immunity (as a result of HIV / AIDS, chemotherapy or steroid treatment, as well as in connection with malignant neoplasms).

Prevention measures

Preventive measures - a true way to prevent the disease.

Infection prevention tips include:

  • Observe the social distance;
  • Observe Hygiene Rules: Wash your hands with soap;
  • Maintain a strong immune system, observing a balanced nutrition;
  • Refuse alcohol and smoking - they provoke complications, cause severe course of the disease.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis and study of pneumonia

Diagnose pneumonia should a doctor, based on symptoms and medical examination data. Hard breathing, wheezing when listening to the chest through a stethoscope are the most common distinguishing features.

Character and type of disease, as well as a method of treatment, help identify additional analyzes and activities:

  • Pulse oximeter - a device that is powered by a finger allows you to quickly, in real time, determine the saturation of the blood oxygen - saturation. Low values ​​are a reason for a more detailed study.
  • Rengen chest - explores the lungs for the presence of affected areas.
  • CT - Computed tomography - more accurate X-ray study of the lungs.
  • Blood Analysis - Analysis of the structure allows you to determine the nature of infection: viral, fungal or bacterial.
  • Wet analysis - helps determine which organism causes pneumonia.
  • Bronchoscopy - the inspection of the lungs under anesthesia is carried out by a special tube, a bronchoscope descended into the lungs for a detailed study.

Treatment of pneumonia at home

Doctors usually prescribe non-prescription medicines to help cope with the symptoms of pneumonia. They include symptomatic antipyretic drugs from temperature, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce pain, as well as means from cough when it leads to exhaustion.

It is important to get a warm drink to getting wetting. At the first symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to reduce the load on the body and relax more.

In normal care, pneumonia is cured for 1-3 weeks. Hospitalization may be required with a weakened immune system when the body does not cope with the disease and there is a progression of symptoms. People with difficulty breathing may be required artificial ventilation of lungs or oxygen therapy.

Some types of pneumonia have an uncharacteristic course of the disease and treatment, therefore are called atypical pneumonia.

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PneumoniaPneumonia is a focal-infiltrative ailment, in which the destructuring of pulmonary fabric occurs. It can be caused by viruses, fungi and bacteria. The damage zone turns out both the upper and lower segments of the main organ of the respiratory system. With a running form, the disease captures all easy. It is quite difficult to determine the inflammation of the lungs at home.

In the clinical picture of adults and children (regardless of the etiology of pneumonia) there are pulmonary and extreme symptoms. When they ignore them in infants, adolescents and other patients develop irreversible pathological changes. To confirm the differential diagnosis in stationary conditions, additional clinical studies are prescribed.

By means of them, the type of pathogen of pneumonia is determined, the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells, dimming in the pulmonary fabric. The obligatory stage of the diagnostic survey is the consultation of the therapist and the pulmonologist. In atypical pneumonia, difficulties arise with the identification of the exact cause.

Is it possible to reveal pneumonia at home

Symptoms that appear when inflammation of the lungs are similar to the signs of other colds. The clinical picture directly depends on the causative agent. Bacterial pneumonia can occur sharply and gradually. If the disease was provoked by mycoplasma, its manifestations are distinguished by low intensity.

Through the differential diagnosis, the likelihood of the development of acute bronchitis, ARVI, tuberculosis, influenza, laryngitis and other infectious pathologies of the respiratory system is excluded. Despite similarity, each of them has its own characteristics. When progressing bronchitis, moderate fever is observed, a strong cough (first dry, then wet), attacks, as a result of which viscous sputum is separated. The obstruction of the bronchi is often accompanied by a tribium and painful sensations in the throat, a runny nose.

Hemople with pneumoniaTuberculosis provokes hemoptysis, excessive sweating, loss of body weight, general weakness. Often fix the increase in lymph nodes. The signs of Larygitis include witness voices and barking cough. To eliminate the inflammatory process that occurs at pneumonia, medicines, physiotherapeutic procedures and folk methods are used. Infusion therapy is prescribed in particularly severe cases.

Differential diagnosis is a necessary step. Thanks to her, the prescribed treatment will give the maximum effect. When clinical research pass, the doctor step by step excludes colds pathologies, the signs of which were not identified. The doctor takes into account the information specified in the map, listens to the patient's complaints.

It is not recommended to make diagnostics, as the probability of error is too high.

In the hospital, pneumonia is determined by means of X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography. With pneumonia, an interstitial pattern is changed on the surface of the lungs. There are no violations of this type only at the initial stage of pneumonia. In this case, there is a need for an additional study.

Find out if the inflammation of the lungs is present, at home without instrumental examination it will not work. When working with portable equipment, special skills are required. Without a doctor, it is impossible to carry out a full diagnosis. When progressing infiltrative deviations, the patient's condition deteriorates significantly. An increase in the intensity of clinical manifestations indicates the absence of effective therapy.

Methods of home diagnostics

To recognize pneumonia at home, it is necessary to follow the diagnostic algorithm. The patient should pay attention to all the symptoms. With inflammation of the lungs, the patient in the clinical picture is present:

  • Hyperthermia;
  • painful sensations in the field of chest;
  • redness of the skin; DISPENE
  • Disgraceability;
  • constant fatigue;
  • dyspeptic disorder;
  • dynake;
  • strong wet cough;
  • chills;
  • Weakness in the whole body.

There are several varieties of pneumonia. In focal form, the disease develops slowly. The damage zone is limited to certain segments. Temperature usually does not exceed 38 degrees. In the wet there are splashes and pus. The discomfort appears when inhaling and during coughing attacks.

Under the brute pneumonia implies a bilateral lung damage. This type of disease is considered the most dangerous. Infectious diseases also affects right-hand, left-sided, stagnant, share, aspiration and atypical. The last form is characterized by the emergence of specific clinical manifestations. Aspiration pneumonia is hidden, so it is categorically prohibited to detect it at home. The severity of pneumonia is determined by focusing on the intensity of the signs. Therefore, one should not refuse to help narrow-profile specialists.

Pathogenic microorganisms give impetus to the development of the inflammatory process. The situation is exacerbated by the negative impact of external and internal factors, among them:

  • supercooling; weak immunity
  • chronic diseases;
  • weakened immune system;
  • physical and (or) emotional overvoltage;
  • mechanical injuries;
  • Lack of timely therapy.

Houses of the patient suffering from pneumonia can take advantage of only two diagnostic methods. Through the physical inspection, they are found:

  • Breathing violation by the affected organ;
  • Strong trembling in voice;
  • wheezes in the lungs;
  • signs of fever;
  • Shortening of the percussion sound in damaged segments;
  • toxic shock;
  • pleural noises;
  • Heavy superficial breathing.

At minor patients, pneumonia causes pneumococci and chlamydia. Atypical lung inflammation causes an increase in lymph nodes and discomfort in the muscles. Percussion and auscultation should be carried out in full compliance with the standard rules. In the absence of knowledge and experience, they are independently strictly prohibited.

Warms appear in the process of breathing. Their bubble depends on the lumen of the affected bronchi. Wet cough develops due to the accumulation of the bronchial secret. In healthy people, when listening to the lungs, you can only detect clear sounds.

Even at the initial stages of the inflammatory process in the respiratory tract, the diagnostic scheme consists of several stages. Among them is the collection of anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory tests, instrumental research. Therefore, when anxiety symptoms appear, it is necessary to immediately contact the medical institution.

Pneumonia is a dangerous disease accompanied by attitudes. The process is so called, as a result of which liquid substance appears in the Alveoli. Because of this, gas exchange is worse, oxygen starvation occurs. Partial lung dysfunction causes violations in the work of other vital organs.

For diagnosis, there is not enough data that is obtained using physical research methods and external inspection. Medical examination is a prerequisite, with non-compliance with which one cannot determine the exact cause of malaise. Full diagnostics can be carried out only in the hospital in the presence of the necessary equipment.

Inflammation of lungs or pneumonia is a viral disease that affects the lightweight tissue and prevents the normal oxygen exchange between air and blood. Inflammatory discharges that fall into the alveoli do not allow the body to obtain a sufficient oxygen volume. And if the disease captures most of the lungs, acute respiratory failure is developing.

Pneumonia are subject to people with a weak immune system, children and elderly. Every year, only 1.5 million people suffer from the disease from the disease and 30% of them make up children of younger and people over 70 years old.

But pneumonia can be treated! And it is recommended to do this with a comprehensive approach. Treatment of any disease begins with the correct diagnosis. Therefore, at the first signs of the development of pathology, please contact a specialist.

What are the first symptoms of pneumonia, as properly and comprehensively approaching treatment and what is required to diagnose the disease, we will tell in this article.

Causes of the development of pneumonia

Pneumonia develops when bacteria and viruses and viruses fall into the lungs, as well as foreign agents that affect the part or all the pulmonary fabric. Pathology pathogens fall into the human body with a respiratory way, rarely - through blood.

Why is the disease rapidly develop in a human body with reduced immunity? In our body there are constantly present bacteria, but the protective mechanisms do not give them multiply by causing pathology. But if the immune system is weakened, the harmful microflora increases the population, which leads to the appearance of the inflammatory process.

Also develops viral pneumonia against the background of the spread of colds of the upper respiratory tract (bronchitis, tracheitis). Also, the cause of inflammation of the lungs can be the supercooling of the body, stress, overwork, abuse of smoking. The risk of developing the disease increases in people with chronic diseases and obesity.

Signs of pneumonia in adult

Signs of pneumonia in adult

When a disease occurs, a person increases the body temperature, which can reach 38 °, there is a general weakness throughout the body, a headache, a patient wants to lie down and relax. A few days later there is a strong bakery cough, a sprome appears.

Pain in the chest, especially in the focus of inflammation, as well as the appearance of shortness of breaths, talk about the severity of the situation and clearly indicate inflammation of the lungs.

Here are general features, however, the nature and time of their manifestation may differ depending on the type of pneumonia. With viral pneumonia, the first symptoms appear rapidly and the patient feels a sharp deterioration in state of health. From the very beginning of the disease, there is pain in the muscles, high body temperature, severe headache, painful dry cough.

Bacterial pneumonia on the contrary develops gradually. The disease begins only 2 weeks after the appearance of the first signs. After that, there is a sharp relief, improving the overall condition of the patient, then the temperature rises again, the headache occurs, the cough occurs, the purulent sprome appears.

One of the serious types of disease is atypical bilateral pneumonia, which extensively affects the lightweight tissue and develops breathing insufficiency. In their symptoms, bilateral pneumonia resembles a cold viral infection, and characteristic wheezing are not yet heard in the lungs. Many begin to be treated independently, which aggravates the state.

At first, the sick thinks that his condition has improved, the symptoms of pathology begin to leave. But then the cough is aggravated and the second wave of the disease begins.

Symptoms in the elderly may differ slightly. First of all, a dry cough appears, shortness of breath during small physical exertion on the body or even at rest. Often the disease occurs without increasing the temperature in people of mature age.

Signs of pneumonia in a child

Signs of pneumonia in a child

Often, pneumonia in children appears as a complication of any viral infection (ARVI, flu, etc.).

  • Cough, which is enhanced with time;
  • If the well-being of the baby improved, and then it became bad again, it can talk about the presence of complications;
  • Each deep breath leads to a strong cough rig;
  • There is a strong pallor of the skin against the development of the listed symptoms;
  • The appearance of shortness of breath.

Is pneumonia?

The inflammatory process in the pulmonary system most often appears due to the breeding of the virus and as a complication of the transferred influenza or ARVI. It is impossible to get sick itself in such cases, but it is easy to grab the disease that has become the root cause. That is, the pneumonia itself is not infection, but the development of inflammation in lungs is an independent complication that arose against the background of weakened immunity and improper self-treatment.

How is pneumonia transmitted?

The disease can be transmitted in different ways, among which:

  • Air-drip method. During the disease on the mucous membrane of the mouth and the nose, drops are formed that apply to air during sneezing and cough. You can get an airframe in any public place: hospital, shop, public transport. The pathogenic pathogen spreads through the air together with mucus particles, sputum, saliva.
  • Contact. Also, the infection is transmitted during contact - handshake, embrace, kiss. People are subjected to infections when they touch contaminated subjects or during when they touch the mouth, eyes, nose dirty hands.
  • Domestic. The infection can be transmitted through towels, dishes and shared bedding. Therefore, the patient needs to be provided with personal objects of hygiene, and as it is possible to change them more often and washing.
  • However, processing personal hygiene items are very carefully. It has been proven that viral microorganism is able to survive up to 4 hours on any surface. Frost is unbrained by the pathogenic bacteria, even a chlorine can be destroyed only five minutes after direct processing.

  • Fecal. The virus survives up to two days in fecal masses at normal intestinal emptying. You can easily be taken over the disease with improper cleaning of toilet or personal hygiene. In order not to be infected, especially from young children, it is important to constantly wash your hands after cleaning a children's pot, often change diapers and thoroughly wash the place of feces.

Pneumonia and bronchitis: What is the difference?

Both diseases affect the human respiratory system, which means that have similar symptoms. Often, two pathologies are difficult to distinguish from each other.

Pneumonia Bronchitis
In most cases, accompanied by a sharp increase in temperature to 38-39 ° and a feverish state. There is a slight increase in temperature. Accompanied by a strong dry cough. In some cases, the sputum of greenish color or with streaks of blood may appear. Wet cough, the wet has a light shade.
When listening to the chest, "wet" wheezing are heard. When listening to the chest, "dry" wheezes are heard.

How is the diagnosis of pneumonia?

How is the diagnosis of pneumonia?

If the child suffers from the disease, you need to seek a pediatrician inspection. If an adult - sign up for a reception to the therapist, which will guide you if necessary for a narrow-profile specialist. The doctor will conduct an external inspection, will collect anamnesis, examines the history of the disease and learns about the symptoms of the disease.

You will be sent to the delivery of laboratory tests:

  • General blood analysis;
  • General urine analysis;
  • Wet analysis is carried out to determine the inflammatory process in the body, as well as the pathogen of pneumonia and its sensitivity to antibiotics.

From diagnostic research methods, you will be prescribed:

  • Radiography of the chest - snapshots appear in the pictures in places of tissue damage;
  • Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging - used as additional measures when other methods do not allow an accurate diagnosis.

Methods Treatment of pneumonia

If pneumonia has a bacterial nature, prescribe antibiotics. Their effectiveness can be estimated after 48-72 hours. If the temperature falls, the cough becomes less often, and the patient begins to feel better, the reception continues. It is impossible to interrupt the course of drugs, and it is important to take them correctly on the prescription of the doctor. If antibiotics do not help, they prescribe another treatment or change to the drug from another group.

With viral pneumonia, antibiotics are not effective, therefore antiviral drugs are prescribed. Vitamins and immunomodulators can be appointed as auxiliary substances.

As soon as the body temperature of the patient returned to normal, it is possible to prescribe physiotherapy. It allows you to bring the wet from the lungs. For this, phytopreparations are often taken, such as licorice root or complex breast fees.

Together with medication treatment, patients need bed regime, food with protein and vitamins, abundant warm drinking. For better effect, therapeutic methods are recommended - electrophoresis, inhalation, massage, magnetotherapy, etc.

Grafting from pneumonia as prevention

Bringing from the pneumococcal infection is in cases where:

  • Frequent outbreaks of disease occur;
  • Visiting public areas;
  • Work in the bacteriological laboratory;
  • Frequent pneumonia, ORVI and influenza, from which the patient suffers.

There are several drugs that are introduced intravenously against disease protection. All of them differ in their composition, cost and latitude of the spectrum of action.

In adulthood, the vaccination is made by one, a persistent immune response to the causative agent is produced in 2-3 weeks. But at the same time, experts recommend vaccinated once every 5 years.

Specialists of the Clinic "Medunion" are engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia. You can make an appointment with a specialist one of the ways convenient for you:

  1. Online on our website Medyunion.ru. Fill out an electronic form by specifying your contact details, a specialization of a doctor, convenient date and time for reception.
  2. Order a callback by specifying your name and phone number. Our managers will call you back within 15 minutes and answer your questions.
  3. Call the registration of a medical clinic by phone number +7 (391) 202-95-80.

Read in this article:

  1. What happens pneumonia?
  2. Signs of pneumonia
  3. How to recognize the disease?
  4. How do pneumonia detect?
  5. When should I contact a doctor?
  6. Methods of protection against pneumonia

Pneumonia or inflammation of the lungs is an infectious disease in which the lungs are affected. These are small bubbles located on the branches of the bronchi and the capillaries associated with the circulatory system. Normally, oxygen falls through bronchi in the alveoli, and then - in blood. In case of infectious damage, bubbles are increased in size, filling in geek or liquid. Accordingly, the flow of oxygen into the body is reduced.

What happens pneumonia?

What happens pneumonia?

The disease is quite dangerous, because it is difficult to diagnose, but it develops very quickly. In addition, there are several types of disease, and for each of them need their own therapy. To date, pneumonia is known:

  • Total - completely capture both lungs;
  • One-sided - inflammation is localized in one light;
  • Bilateral - with the advent of inflammatory foci in both lungs;
  • Drain - first separate foci are formed, but they are subsequently merged into one;
  • Bruboral - with the defeat of individual lobes;
  • Focal - with a deterioration in the structure of some sections of the lung;
  • Segmental - capture one or more segments;
  • Interstitial - caused by atypical factors.

Determine the specific type of lesion of the respiratory system is possible only with X-ray.

By type of pathogen of pneumonia there are viral, bacterial and fungal. Basically, the infection occurs through the air, in which many microorganisms fall during coughing and sneezing. Cause diseases are capable of fungi, streptococci and staphylococci, viruses, helminths. Mixed forms are found: viral-bacterial or fungal-viral. Recently, a new concept has been added to them: coronavirus pneumonia.

The indirect causes of pneumonia may be the weakening of the body as a result of ARVI or other disease, supercooling, stress. With a decrease in the protective forces, the causative agent is easier to hit pulmonary fabrics. Pneumonia, developed as independent diseases, is called primary. Inflammations that are complications of other pathologies - secondary. Especially dangerous is asymptomatic pneumonia, which often arises against the contamination of coronavirus.

Signs of pneumonia

Signs of pneumonia

To a large extent, the forecasts and the rate of recovery depend on the timely diagnosis and timely start of treatment. That is why it is important to know how to determine the pneumonia at home. At first, symptoms may be similar to the flu or cold, however, they are much longer.

Symptoms of pneumonia can be:

  • Pain in the chest area with cough and breathing;
  • Shortness of breath, confused breathing even at low loads;
  • Constant fatigue;
  • Cough with sputum;
  • Loss of appetite;
  • Reduction of physical activity;
  • Increase body temperature up to 39-40 ° C;
  • Soreness in muscles;
  • Surface breathing.

In the elderly people with weakened immunity it is possible to reduce the temperature, they feel a strong decay of forces. For bacterial pneumonia, the intensification of the sweating, the increase in the pulse, a bluish shade of nails and lips. The disease can be accompanied by a feeling of light shortage. In children over 7 years old signs of pneumonia are similar to adults.

How to recognize the disease?

It is especially important to understand how to determine the pneumonia on their own, taking into account the dissemination of COVID-19. The infection affects the respiratory tract and causes a serious lesion of the pulmonary fabric. Signs of pneumonia at coronavirus are considered:

  • A steadily high temperature for 4-5 days;
  • Cough with a purulent sputum separation;
  • Raising the temperature at the beginning of the disease, gradually reduced it and the next height to high indicators;
  • Nasal congestion, sometimes with a loss of smell;
  • Headache.

One of the most efficient ways to determine the pneumonia without X-ray is to compare several available symptoms. Most of them are also characteristic of influenza, and for ORVI, but, for example, a combination of a throat, obsessive dry cough with a high temperature with a large propability indicates the development of pneumonia.

If such signs appear, in no case can you try to recover at home. This may lead to very dangerous consequences, so you need to consult a doctor as soon as possible. At the same time it is undesirable to go to the clinic: a person with similar symptoms may well be a carrier of COVID-19, and therefore, the source of danger to others. The only correct solution will be a challenge of ambulance.

How do pneumonia detect?

In medical institutions, pneumonia is diagnosed with several methods. For this purpose:

  • Blood test - allows you to confirm the infection and establish the type of pathogen;
  • X-ray - makes it possible to determine the localization of lung lesions;
  • Pulse oximetry - with pneumonia gas exchange in the lungs is broken, therefore, the measurement of the oxygen concentration in the blood is one of the signs of the disease;
  • Wet analysis is the most accurate way to identify the type of pathogen.

How do pneumonia detect?

To identify coronavirus pneumonia tests and computed tomography are carried out. The second method is considered more efficient, since it allows to analyze the condition of the lung tissue and reveal its defeat even with the hidden course of the disease.

When should I contact a doctor?

In the occurrence of pain in the chest and other signs of pneumonia, it is especially important to immediately consult a doctor to people:

  • Over 65 years old;
  • With chronic diseases of the respiratory organs and other serious pathologies (obstructive bronchitis, liver cirrhosis, diabetes, heart failure);
  • With imminent immunity, immunodeficiency states;
  • Long time in bed;
  • With bad habits (smoking, alcohol).

The risk group also includes small children, so when the first symptoms of the disease, you need to immediately contact the doctor.

Methods of protection against pneumonia

One of the basic measures for the prevention of a dangerous disease is a healthy lifestyle. Sports, walking in the fresh air, a balanced diet - all these factors positively affecting immunity. The more powerful the protective forces of the body, the less likelihood of infection. Even in the case of infecting, it will be much easier to deal with the disease.

Methods of protection against pneumonia

Protect against pneumonia, including coronavirus, will help:

  • Frequent washing of hands with soap, especially after coughing, sneezing, visits to crowded places;
  • Handling with alcohol-based antiseptics;
  • Regular air ventilation;
  • Full nutrition (in the diet it is necessary to include fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish and meat);
  • Clothes on the weather, allowing to avoid hypothermia;
  • Control of conditioner cleanliness.

Contacts with people should be avoided, which have signs of illness, such as cough or sneezing. In public places you need to use gloves and mask to protect against infection.

Today there are quite a few ways to determine the pneumonia on their own. But they all allow only to assume the presence of a disease, but not to establish a diagnosis. In order not to expose your life and health surrounding serious risk, you should not try to cope with the disease yourself. To accurately recognize the pneumonia itself, its type and appoint effective treatment can only doctor.

Publication date July 31, 2018. Updated December 18, 2020.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs) - a variant of acute respiratory infection, affecting a lightweight fabric. Lights consist of small fabricated formations (Alveol), which during the respiratory act of a healthy person must fill with air. With pneumonia, the alveoli is filled with liquid (exudate) and pus, which worsen gas exchange. [one]

Alveoli is normal and at pneumonia

Complete Pneumonia (VP) - This is an acute infectious disease, especially common among residents of cities. According to the statistics provided by different authors, about 1,500,000 people are ill in pneumonia annually. In the mortality structure, pneumonium in Russia in 2015 accounted for up to 50% (in the group of diseases of the respiratory organs), in 2016 the mortality from this disease reached 21 for every 100 thousand inhabitants. [2]

The list of possible causative agents of VI includes more than a hundred microorganisms (viruses, mushrooms, simplest, but mainly bacteria). However, most often the disease is associated with a relatively small circle of microbial agents, including:

  • Pneumococcus (S. pneumoniae);
  • Mycoplasma (M. pneumoniae);
  • Chlamydofila (C. pneumoniae);
  • Hemophilic stick (H. Influenzae) ;
  • respiratory viruses;
  • enterobacteria;
  • Golden Staphylococcus (S. aureus);
  • Legionella Pneumophila (L. Pneumophila).
Patoes of community-hospital pneumonia

Risk factors

The greatest risk of the development of pneumonia is subject to:

  • children up to two years;
  • People over 65 years old.

Other risk factors include:

  • treatment in the hospital;
  • Chronic diseases - asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or heart disease;
  • Weakened immune system - patients with HIV, as well as people who have transferred transplants receiving chemotherapy or long-receiving steroids are at high risk;
  • smoking [12] .

An unfavorable outcome risk factors are: age, male floor and related diseases [3] .

Inage pneumonia

Pneumonia can cause many different microorganisms. Many of them are transmitted from a person to a person, but not all when exposed to the same microbes develop pneumonia.

How pneumonia is transmitted

Viruses and bacteria leading to the development of pneumonia can be transmitted by air-drip and contact-domestic way. Mushroom pneumonia is usually developing when people inhale microscopic particles of the environment.

Warning

When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!

Symptoms of pneumonia

The supercooling of the body often becomes the cause that runs the process of developing inflammation of the lungs in adults. Then the symptoms of the disease appear consistently.

How to recognize the symptoms of pneumonia:

  • unexpected and very fast rise body temperature to febrile digits (over 38 ° C);
  • nonspecific manifestations of systemic intricensication of the body (depression, lethargy, fatigue, muscle weakness, drowsiness, headache);
  • After 3-4 days, a dry cough occurs, which after a few more days becomes wet - the mucus (sputum) begins to flick, often it has a rusty or brown color;
  • There may be pain in the chest on the side of the affected light (or on both sides, if the inflammation is bilateral), which is enhanced by coughing and breathing;
  • When breathing may be listened to wheezing in the chest (not all patients are heard);
  • shortness of breath (frequent breathing) - is the result of massive lesion of the lung and manifestation of respiratory failure;
  • One of the sides of the chest (amazed) can fall behind with breathing. [four]

Signs of pneumonia in an adult:

The main symptoms of pneumonia

Signs of pneumonia at the child

In children, the symptoms of pneumonia are usually pronounced more - they are sick with a higher temperature at which febrile cramps may develop. In addition, children, especially very small, often badly know how to dig a sputum, so it is not always possible to notice her purulent character - yellow or green color and an unpleasant smell.

Pathogenesis of pneumonia

Leading mechanisms that lead to the development of VP:

  1. penetration into the lower respiratory paths of the content of the rotogling (aspiration);
  2. Inhalation of aerosol suspension containing various microbial agents;
  3. penetration of microorganisms from the focus of infection, located outside the lungs, through blood;
  4. Moving infectious agents from neighboring affected organs (direct contact) or as a result of attachment of infection with invalid objects (weapons) into the chest. [3]

Attachment (adhesion) of microbial agents to the surface membrane cell epithelium cells of the bronchi, especially the preceding dysfunction of the celibery epithelium and change of mukiciliary clearance, is becoming the starting pulse of the development of pneumonia.

Stage of the inflammatory process

The next step in the formation of inflammation is the reproduction of the microbial agent in the cells of the bronchial epithelium. The disorder of the integrity of the membrane of these cells leads to intensive products of biologically active substances - cytokines. They cause directional motion (chemotaxis) of macrophages, neutrophils and a number of other cells in the inflammation area.

In the following stages of the inflammatory process, consistent penetration (invasion), the vital activity of microorganisms inside the cells and products of toxins plays a very significant role. All these processes ultimately end with exudative inflammation inside Alveol and bronchiol. The phase of clinical manifestations of the disease occurs. [four]

Mechanism of development of pneumonia

Classification and stage of development of pneumonia

In the international classification of the diseases of the 10th revision (ICD-10) in the section "H. Respiratory diseases »allocate the following types of pneumonia:

  • non-classified viral pneumonia (adenovirus and others);
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia ( S. Pneumoniae. );
  • Pneumonia caused by hemophilic stick ( H. INFLUENZAE. );
  • non-classified bacterial pneumonium caused by the impact of Klebsiella ( Klebsiella Pneumoniae. ), staphylococcus ( Staphylococcus SPP. ), streptococcus group in and other fiefococcus, intestinal sticks ( Escherichia Coli. ), other aerobic gram-negative bacteria and micallopasms ( Mycoplasma pneumoniae. ). Also, this group includes other bacterial pneumonia and pneumonia of unspecified etiology.
  • Pneumonia, which emerged due to the impact of other infectious pathogens: Chlamydia (Chlamydia SPP), as well as other infections established pathogens.
  • pneumonia arising from diseases classified in other categories (with actinomycosis, Siberian ulcer, gonorrhea, nocardiosis, salmonellosis, tularemia, abdominal title, coughus; for cytomegalovirus disease, measles, rubella, wind pump; under the Mikosakh; under parasitosis; under ornithosis, ku-fever, acute rheumatic fever, spirochetose);
  • Pneumonia without refining the pathogen.

This classification is built on the etiological principle, that is, it is based on the form of a pathogen who caused the cause of inflammation of the lungs. [five]

Also separately allocated Aspiration pneumonia , which has been attributed to inhalation or passive getting into light different substances in a large amount, most often vomit, which cause an inflammatory response.

Aspiration pneumonia leads:

  • the regulation of the gastric content in the respiratory tract at reanimation, shock, disorders of consciousness (including in alcohol and heroin intoxication);
  • Violation of swallowing in various neurological disorders and diseases of the esophagus.

Features of the treatment of aspiration pneumonia is the use of endoscopic methods for washing and purifying respiratory tract, antibacterial and expectorant drugs.

In modern clinical practice, the most popular classification is the classification that takes into account the three main factor: the conditions for the appearance of pneumonia, the features of infection of the pulmonary tissue and the status of the patient's immune system. In this aspect it is very important to distinguish Complete-headed pneumonia (VP) and Non-community pneumonia (Nosocomial, NP), since the concepts of their treatment will differ. The community is considered pneumonia, which developed outside the hospital or detected in the first 48 hours after hospitalization in the hospital. Since 2005, a number of authors outreach Pneumonia associated with medical intervention .[6]

Signs of community-friendly, nosocomial (nosocomial) and related to the provision of medical assistance of pneumonia

Classification under the conditions of the appearance of pneumonia

Complications of pneumonia

Many authors allocate two categories of complications developing at pneumonia - "light" and "extreme".

К "Easy" complications relate:

  • parapneumonic pleurisy;
  • Empiama pleura;
  • abscess and gangrene lung;
  • acute respiratory failure;
  • Respiratory Distress syndrome.

"Extreme" complications are:

  • septic shock;
  • polyorgan deficiency;
  • meningitis;
  • myocarditis;
  • DVS syndrome.

Currently, such a division is very conditional, since intoxication syndrome in pneumonia applies to the entire body.

Pleurisy - an inflammatory disease in which an excess amount of liquid accumulates in the pleural cavity. It is observed especially often with the bacterial and viral nature of the pathogen.

Abscess liga - Pathological infectious process, manifested by the formation of a more or less limited cavity in a lightweight tissue (> 2 cm in diameter) due to the local intake of tissues and the subsequent purulent decay. Very often, the development of abscesses is infected with anaerobic microorganisms.

Empiama pleura - The accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity, quite often becomes the extremely adverse outcome of the flow of exudative pleuritis.

Empiama pleura

Acute respiratory failure - A sharp impairment of breathing, in which the oxygen transport is reduced into lungs, and ensuring the proper gas composition of arterial blood becomes impossible. As a result of insufficient oxygen intake, "oxygen starvation" (hypoxia) occurs. Significant oxygen deficiency threatens the life of the patient and may require deploying measures of emergency intensive therapy.

Sepsis - It is the most formidable and severe complication of pneumonia. It develops when the infectious agent penetrates the infectious agent, and then its circulation on the bloodstream occurs. The feature of sepsis is to form purulent foci throughout the body. The clinical manifestations of sepsis are very bright: the body temperature rises to febrile numbers, there is a heavy intoxication syndrome, manifested by headache, nausea, vomiting, less often diarrhea, the skin becomes an "earthy" shade).

DVS syndrome - Pathology from the hemostasis system (the resulting and anticorant blood system), leading to a change in normal microcirculation in the vascular channel due to massive bleeding with the simultaneous formation of thrombov. [7]

Diagnosis of pneumonia

Diagnostic studies with VI are aimed at clarifying the diagnosis, determination of the pathogen, the assessment of the severity of the flow and forecast of the disease, as well as to detect complications.

The diagnostic algorithm for suspected VP includes:

  • detailed collection of anamnesis;
  • Analysis of patient complaints;
  • physical examination;
  • Laboratory and instrumental studies, the volume of which can be determined individually and is due to the severity of the EP's flow, the emergence and character of complications concomitant patient diseases.

The diagnosis of VP is proven when identifying a patient focal infiltration of light tissue confirmed radiologically And, at least two of the signs listed below:

  • acutely occurring fever at the beginning of the disease (body temperature> 38.0 ° C);
  • cough with sputum;
  • Physical signs identified during the full physical examination (local attitudes or small-pushed wheezes, bronchial respiration, dulling sound at percussion);
  • An increase in the total number of leukocytes (> 10 · 109 / l) and / or a halochloride shift (> 10%).

Important! In the absence or inaccessibility of x-ray confirmation of focal infiltration in the lungs, the diagnosis of "VP" is considered unspecified. At the same time, the diagnosis of "pneumonia" can be justified by the data of epidanamnesis (medical history), the presence of relevant complaints and local manifestations. [3]

Left-sided lower-grade pneumonia

A very important point in the diagnosis of pneumonium is the use of pulse oximetry method. In all clinical recommendations, the need to measure saturation from EVERY Patient with inflammation of lungs. [nine]

Pulse oximetry method

Currently, there are a number of diagnostic techniques that allow you to divide all VN into two categories - heavy and notching. Thus, the main task of the gravity assessment scale (ballroom systems) is to identify patients with an unfavorable forecast and a high risk of complications. [8] Examples of such scales are:

  • PSI - gravity index of pneumonia;
  • CURB-65 scale;
  • SMART-COP scale.
SMART-COP scale

After determining the severity, the attending physician decides on the place of treatment - outpatient surveillance or hospitalization.

How to distinguish inflammation of the lungs from ARVI, flu and bronchitis

To distinguish the inflammation of the lungs from seasonal ARVI, influenza and bronchitis, visualization of lungs - radiography of the chest organs, digital fluorography or computer tomography of the chest organs. These methods allow you to detect infiltrates in lightweight fabric.

Treatment of pneumonia

Which doctor treats the disease

Pneumonia treats the therapist or pulmonologist.

When to consult a doctor

To the doctor should be applied when problems with breathing, chest pains, a permanent fever (over 38 ° C) and cough, especially with a sputter.

Indications for the disease

Treatment of patients with VI is comprehensive and based on several basic principles:

  • appointment of antimicrobial drugs;
  • adequate respiratory support if necessary;
  • the use of nonantibacterial drugs (only in the event of indications);
  • Prevention of complications.

It is extremely important to the timely detection and treatment of decompensation or exacerbation of related diseases, since their presence / severity can radically affect pneumonia. [ten]

Antimicrobial preparations

Important! Antibacterial therapy (ABT) can only be appointed by a doctor, otherwise the risk of drug sustainability (resistance) of microorganisms increases sharply.

The main groups of antimicrobial preparations used in the treatment of pneumonia are:

  • Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins);
  • macrolides;
  • Respiratory fluoroquinolones.

In some cases, in the presence of special indications, preparations of other groups (tetracycles, aminoglycosides, lincoosamides, vancomycin, linoxolid can be used.

In viral pneumonia (usually associated with the influenza virus), inhibitors of neuraminidase (oseltamivir and zanamivir) are most important, which have high activity against influenza a and b. viruses

In the treatment of outpatient patients, preference is given to oral antibiotics (usually in tableted form). In the treatment of patients in the hospital, a stepped approach is used: begin with parenteral administration of antibiotics (intravenous path preferred), in the future, as the patient's clinical stabilization is translated to oral administration (tablets).

The duration of antimicrobial therapy of the Night EP is determined individually, with a heavy VP of unspecified etiology - continues at least 10 days. The implementation of longer courses ABT (from 14 to 21 days) is recommended only in the development of the complications of the disease, the presence of foci of inflammation outside of light tissue, infection S.Aureus. , Legionella SPP. ., Nonfernifying microorganisms ( P.aeruginosa. ).

In clinical practice, it is very important to decide on the possibility of stopping AMT at the right moment. For this, sufficiency criteria have been developed:

  • resistant decrease in body temperature <37.2ºС for at least 48 hours;
  • lack of manifestations of intoxication syndrome;
  • normalization of breathing frequency (<20 / min);
  • No purulent sputum;
  • Reducing the number of leukocytes in the blood (<10 · 109 / l), neutrophils (<80%), young forms (<6%);
  • Lack of negative dynamics on the radiograph. [3]

Respiratory support

Acute respiratory failure (ODN) is the leading cause of the death of patients with VP, therefore adequate respiratory support is the most important component of the treatment of such patients (of course, in conjunction with systemic antibiotic therapy). Respiratory support is shown to all patients with VEs with RO2 <55 mm Hg. or SrO2 <88% (with air breathing). [four]

Oxygen therapy It is carried out in the case of a moderate lack of oxygen in the blood with a simple nasal mask or mask with a consumable bag.

Oxygen therapy

Artificial ventilation lungs (IVL) is used in the event that even with oxygen inhalations, the target level of blood saturation oxygen is not achieved.

Artificial ventilation lungs

Indications to the IVL at one on the background of the VP:

  • Absolute: Stop breathing, violation of consciousness (copor, coma), psychomotor excitation, unstable hemodynamics (blood pressure <70 mm Hg, heart rate <50 / min);
  • Relative: ChDD> 35 / min RAO2 / FIIO2 <150 mm Hg, Raising Raso2> 20% of the initial level, violation of consciousness.

Neanctibacterial therapy

Presented by three major grades of drugs:

  • Systemic glucocorticosteroids (GKS);
  • intravenous immunoglobulins (IG);
  • Some immunostimulants.

Glucocorticosteroids

The question of the appointment of GCS is considered primarily for the heavy EP, which is complicated by septic shock. GKS contribute to the limitation of the destructive influence of systemic inflammation using various genomic and non-mentioned effects.

Immunoglobulins

The use of the IG for the treatment of infections complicated by sepsis is based on a variety of effects: from neutralizing bacterial toxins until the cell reactivity is reduced during the phenomenon of the "immune paralysis".

In the treatment of sepsis, polyclonal ig, which, compared with placebo, reduce the relative risk of death. The routine use of intravenous IG patients with severe VP complicated by sepsis is impractical.

Immunostimulators

Interest in these drugs is associated with their ability to strengthen phagocytosis, education and maturation of neutrophils. However, due to the lack of a convincing evidence base, they currently have practically not used in routine practice.

Contraindications for the disease

At pneumonia, it is extremely recommended to engage in self-medication, especially using antibiotics. At the moment there are many groups of antibacterial drugs, for the selection of adequate therapy, the doctor will ask several questions about the history of the disease, drug intolerance, the previous use of antibiotics and what other preparations the patient takes regularly. In the acute period of the disease, it is recommended to refrain from the active use of physiotherapeutic treatment methods, especially related to the heating of tissues.

Forecast. Prevention

A favorable or unfavorable outcome of the VP depends on several factors:

  • the age of the patient;
  • the severity of the flow;
  • The presence / absence of concomitant diseases.

The risk of death is minimal in young and middle-aged patients with the well-mentioned pulp and non-accompanying diseases. In patients of elderly and senile age, there is a risk of fatal outcome in the presence of significant concomitant pathology (COPD, malignant neoplasms, alcoholism, diabetes, chronic heart failure), as well as in situations of development of heavy VP.

The main cause of the death of patients with severe VP is a steady lack of oxygen, septic shock and insufficiency of all organs and systems. According to research, the main factors associated with the unfavorable prognosis of patients with severe VI, are:

  • Age> 70 years;
  • Conducting IVL;
  • bilateral localization of pneumonia;
  • Septic and infection with a blue-purulent stick.

Speaking of Russia, it should be mentioned later to refer to patients for qualified medical care. This becomes an additional risk factor for an unfavorable outcome.

How to prevent pneumonia

At the moment, highly effective means are available throughout the world, allowing themselves to protect themselves and their relatives from this formidable disease - pneumococcal and influenza vaccines.

In order to specific prophylaxis of pneumococcal infections, including pneumonia, two vaccines are used in adults:

  • 23-valence non-conjugated vaccine (contains purified capsular polysaccharide antigens 23 serotypes S.pneumoniae. );
  • 13-valence pneumococcal conjugated vaccine.

All patients with high risk of pneumonium should be protected by such vaccines. [eleven]