The brain is the most complex organ of the human body, because it connects all the organism systems among himself. That is why the studies of the brain passes using the highest-tech diagnostic devices.
When you need to examine the brain
Using the high-precision diagnosis of the brain, the doctor may diagnose or track the development of the disease. A neurologist, phlebologist and traumatologist may prescribe a brain survey or vessels because of the following complaints:
- headaches of unclear nature;
- Head injuries;
- loss of sensitivity in the limbs, reducing vision, hearing and smell;
- coordination violation, constant general weakness;
With suspected stroke and diagnosis of tumors and epilepsy, research is simply necessary - with their help you can find neoplasms, blockages and breaks of vessels, hematomas, foreign bodies and non-functioning brain areas. Since pathologies in different parts of the head can cause completely diverse symptoms, doctors very often prescribe brain studies.
Types of brain research
The most common and informative types of brain studies are computer and magnetic resonance tomography. They allow you to get high-quality brain pictures in several projections, which helps in the diagnosis of any ailment.
Magnetic resonance imaging brain
Absolutely safe method of examination, which practically does not have contraindications. It is only dangerous to patients with pacemakers and metal implants in the body - the magnetic field of tomograph can shift or heat the items made of metal and disrupt the operation of the mechanisms.
On the resulting image, you can consider dense and soft tissues, vessels and neoplasms. The MRI snapshot is carried out in several projections at the necessary depth, so the doctor can estimate the state of any portion of the brain.
Before the procedure, you need to remove all metal items and accessories. In order not to undress before the study, you can simply wear clothes without lightning and metal buttons.
For MRI, the patient falls on the couch. A laboratory assistant can give headphones protecting from very loud sounds during the procedure. The patient is then placed inside tomograph. It is necessary to save immobility, since the change of body position will distort the image. The brain survey is usually held no more than half an hour. At the request of the patient, if he feels uncomfortable, the procedure can be stopped or suspend without harm to the information content of the study.
Computer tomography brain
It works on the basis of X-ray rays, so it is not recommended for children, pregnant and nursing women. But for all other patients, it is absolutely safe.
After CT, you can get a 3D image of the brain. It is as high quality as MRI: all the structures of the brain and vessels are visible on it. Therefore, the choice between two types of tomography is based only on the existing contraindications.
Metal objects will also need to be removed: they are not dangerous, as with MRI, but interfere with the passage of radiation. If this is not done, part of the image will be lost.
A significant plus of computed tomography - small changes in the position of the body will not affect the result. The rest of the procedure differs little from MRI. The patient on the couch is placed in tomograph and watch him during the procedure. The study lasts no more than 15-20 minutes and can be stopped at any time at the request of the patient.
Tomography can be carried out using a contrast agent to get more detailed and clear pictures. To do this, first passes the usual study, and then the patient is injected intravenously input. After that, the procedure continues within a few minutes.
Other types of research
In addition to tomography, several more diagnostic types are used to examine the brain:
- Electroencephalography (EEG) registers fluctuations in electrical pulses in the brain. Electrodes are attached to the patient's head, through which the brain biotoks are recorded and displayed on paper. This study can help with the delay in mental and speech development, epilepsy and injuries: thanks to it, it is possible to determine the inactive parts of the brain.
- Craniography - It is X-ray skulls in two projections. It uses very weak radiation to not harm the patient. Such pictures will help identify congenital defects of the structure and injury of bones of the skull.
- Neurosonography - This is an ultrasound study of the brain in children from birth to the closure of Spring. It is not as informative as tomography and x-rays, but is one of the few secure ways to survey newborn.
- Email meter Checks the passage of pulses by nerves. To do this, the electrodes are imposed on the skin in the field of localization of nerves, which are allowed by an electrical impulse. According to the intensity of muscle contraction, the doctor will determine the performance of the nerves.
How is the test of vessels?
For vehicle surveys and brain arteries, angiography and ultrasound examination are used. Both options are safe, informative and have a minimum of contraindications.
Gives the best result in the study of small vessels and nerve trunks. During the study, the doctor will receive a snapshot of all vessels of your brain. This will help diagnose microinsults and thrombosis that are not visible on the usual MRI image of the head. Often it is prescribed surgeons after operations to control the status.
Mra passes the same as the usual magnetic resonance tomography, and has the same features and contraindications. Before the procedure, you need to remove all metal objects, and during the operation of tomograph you can not move your head. Often, for proper diagnosis, angiography should be combined with the MRI of the brain - this will allow you to consider the site of pathology in more detail.
The channel of the brain vessels is similar to computed tomography. Following the procedure, the doctor will receive a three-dimensional model of the head vessels. On the resulting image, you can consider the abnormalities of the structure of veins and arteries, atherosclerosis, the narrowing of the lumen of the vessels and the neoplasms.
The doctor may assign this examination both to prepare for surgical intervention and for control after treatment. In addition, such a type of examination is a way out for patients who cannot conduct MRA on contraindications.
In compatible angiography, you can use a contrast agent to better visualize damaged areas. Contraindications for the procedure are the same as for CT: pregnancy and children's age.
The ultrasound sensor is put on the finest skull bones. With the help of ultrasound, it is possible to find a narrowing or thrombosis in the brain vessels, measure the speed of blood flow, detect aneurysms and sections with a modified direction of blood flow. The image is shown on the monitor screen, and, if necessary, you can print the desired frame.
With the help of ultrasound, you can examine both the vessels inside the skull and in the neck, if because of them, blood flow in the brain was broken. The method has no contraindications, it is absolutely safe for patients of any age. UD does not require additional training or surveys, however, before the procedure is better to refrain from the reception of products and drugs affecting the tone of the vessels.
What does the selection of the study depend on?
The most common methods of studies of the brain: MRI, CT and ultrasound. They are informative enough for the absolute majority of possible diseases. If you do not know your diagnosis and want to come to a doctor with already ready-made analyzes, the best option will be MRI or CT. They give enough information as a state of both the brain itself and bone tissues, and large vessels can be distinguished.
In injuries, head should be cranched first. It will give sufficient information about the integrity of the skull, and if the foreign bodies did not fall into the brain, other types of diagnostics will not be needed. If the injury is more serious, with internal bleeding and brain damage, then you will definitely make tomography.
If the doctor appointed you a test of brain vessels, then you should navigate your own contraindications, as well as the availability of research. Both tomography and ultrasound show equally good result.
The decisive factor when choosing research remains a doctor's decision. Serious diagnosis is carried out only towards the doctor. It is possible that he will appoint you several procedures at once for a more complete examination and accurate diagnosis.
The best methods for examining brain vessels
To obtain accurate results about the quality of blood supply to the structures of the head in medicine, various methods of inspection of brain vessels are used. The classification of the methods of diagnosis of the vascular brain system is based:
- on the degree of invasiveness;
- The type of image preparation is using ultrasound, X-rays, magnetic field.
What is the name of the examination of the vessels of the brain
Any method of examining brain vessels is customary called angiography, where "angio" translated from Greek means "Vessel", "graphics" - "write". It shows the functional state of the vessels, the area of the blood flow and the length of the pathological process. Depending on the method of obtaining an image, it is highlighted:
- Ultrasound angiography or ultrasound doppler
- Mr angiography
- Classic angiography
UDG is a publicly available method of examining brain and neck vessels. It is necessary if you need to know how blood flows in the brain vessels and neck. With the help of ultrasound, you can accurately determine atherosclerotic anomalies at the beginning of their development and adjust treatment methods. This survey shows very well the state of the neck vessels. However, the qualitative diagnosis of brain vessels is difficult on it, since the ultrasonic signal cannot break through the bone structures of the adult skull. Survey both in the direction of the doctor and on the patient's personal initiative. Before going to ultrasound doppler, the day before it is worth abandoning caffeine and nicotine.
MRI at night
To determine the elasticity of blood vessels, their tone, the effectiveness of the filling of blood, helps high-frequency electricals of the refrigerant, supplied on the tissues of the human body. In turn, they respond to oscillations that are instantly recorded. Reoeczephalography makes it possible to identify the work of venous and arterial brain systems, determine the presence of intracranial hypertension, atherosclerosis, vascular dystonia, subdural hematoma.
Angiography of brain vessels is the instrumental X-ray method of studying the vascular bed. To carry out the survey, it is necessary to administer through the puncture into the vessel of the brain of the contrast substance based on iodine with the subsequent radiography procedure. This is an invasive method of inspection of a brain, which has a certain risk of complications and cannot be considered safe. Its more efficient and harmless alternative is CT or MRI brain vessels.
Computed tomography of brain vessels
Computer angiography of brain vessels is an improved diagnostic method based on the operation of X-rays. It makes it possible to get detailed images of arteries and brain veins without third-party intervention in the patient's body. The principle of visualization of the vascular channel is based on the ability of X-rays at a different speed to pass through the tissues of different density. In order for CT images of the doctor to highly visualize vessels, it is necessary to use a contrast substance based on iodine. This form of angiography gives a very accurate result, but, like any form of x-ray examination, conjugate with radial load on the body. On average, the radiation dose for one scan session is 3-5 mSv.
As a rule, CT brain vessels are used in the following cases:
- There are suspicions of stroke;
- Search for the aneurysm of the brain;
- diagnosis of atherosclerosis;
- Evaluation of the degree of malformations and occlusion.
Due to radiation load, computed tomography is contraindicated by pregnant women. Since the diagnosis use a contrast agent, then the circle of persons who are not allowed to be examined, expands. It adds categories of citizens who are observed:
- Renal / liver failure;
- Problems with thyroid gland;
- Allergy to contrast.
Conding CT brain angiography with contrast requires excluding food eating 2 hours before a survey.
Magnetic resonance tomography of brain vessels
The MR-angiography of brain vessels works with a harmless magnetic field and radio frequency pulses. The state of the vascular bed is visualized due to the oscillation of hydrogen atoms in human cells under the influence of electromagnetic fields. To date, this is the safest and informative method of examining brain vessels. Use it for angio-scanning both adults and children.
MRI vessels can be used for differential diagnosis of a wide range of vascular pathologies, namely:
- abnormal structure of the vascular bed;
- occlusions, ignitions, aneurysms;
Among the contraindications to this form of research it is worth noting:
- Metal elements (implants, pins, clips);
- Artificial rhythm drivers.
Procedures MRI and CT brain vessels are similar. The patient is sent on the retractable table inside the cylinder-shaped apparatus. However, MRI brain vessels takes longer. The average duration of the computer inspection of the brain is 5 minutes, and the magnetic scan is 20 minutes.
What method of examination is best showing brain vessels?
The answer to the question of which diagnostic method will better show the state of the vascular channel of the brain, largely depends on the purpose of the survey.
- The most secure is the MRI examination of the brain vessels and the ultrasound of the brain vessels.
- Classical angiography is considered the most traumatic.
- The most informative and sensitive to the spectrum of diagnostic possibilities is considered to be MRI and CT-angiography of brain vessels.
- The most affordable is the USDG.
- The patient gets the highest dose of irradiation with computed tomography.
The final decision, which method of inspection of the brain vessels should be chosen, it is better to pay at the deposit of the attending physician, which, based on the purposes of diagnostics, the primary diagnosis and the state of your health, will be able to pick up the most optimal form of scanning.
Article author: Tumanova Ekaterina Vladimirovna
Medical specialty: Neurologist, doctor - Neurophysiologist
To make an appointment: St. Petersburg, GBUZ Aleksandrovskaya Hospital
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Brain disease is a wide group of heterogeneous pathologies of nerve tissues, vessels. They meet in patients of all ages, carry a danger to health and life. These are also formidable disorders such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, all sorts of dementia forms. The account of possible pathologies is on hundreds. MRI is an informative technique, but this is not a panacea. Tomography is used in the system with other methods. How to check your head except MRI - depends on a specific clinical case.
At doctors in the arsenal, there are enough ways to study the structural and functional state of the brain.
Ways to check brain besides MRI
How to check your head, brain, solves the profile specialist: neurologist, neurosurgeon. The diagnostic strategy depends on the symptoms and the alleged diagnosis.
Computed tomography (CT) is a research method based on the effects of X-ray to the body. In essence, we are talking about more "advanced" and more informative version of classical X-ray. Computed tomography, in the main part of cases, is very inferior to magnetic resonance tomography in informativeness.
The fact is that MRI better visualizes the brainstant. CT is directed to the visualization of dense tissues of the body. In particular, bones. Therefore, the list of readings for such diagnostics is limited. Among the grounds:
- Heart injuries.
- Damage to the skull structures.
In some cases, CT is appointed as an addition to MRI against the background of revealed or alleged tumors of cerebral structures. Some neoplasia contain areas of petrification, deposition of calcium salts. Therefore, it is possible to better understand the structure of neoplasia. To increase informativeness, in the same way as in the case of MRI, a contrast agent is introduced, there are different modifications of the method.
In any case, the question of the feasibility of such a study remains at the discretion of the doctor.
Ultrasound examination of brain vessels is a simple, widely available and non-invasive method for diagnosing anatomical and functional deviations of structures that feed cerebral tissues. There are several modifications of the method. Each solves its own tasks. Standard ultrasound allows you to examine the head vessels in two aspects:
- Structural. That is, checking the anatomical state of the arteries.
- Functional. Check the state of vessels in terms of speed and quality of blood flow.
During the ultrasound, you can check the vessels of the head and neck: sleepy, vertebral artery. Nevertheless, these are different studies, although they are often prescribed in the system.
Among the testimony for the examination can be called:
- Regular headaches.
- Applying nausea.
- Acute Vegetative Reactions to Weather Change. Weather sensitivity.
- Cognitive sphere disorders. Reducing intelligence, memory, concentration, quality and speed of thinking.
- Mental disorders.
- Focal neurological violations: problems with vision, hearing, disorders of other analyzers.
The last word remains for a neurologist, a vascular surgeon.
Methodology for estimating the functional state of cerebral structures. The subject of research in this case is the electrical activity of the brain. To send a person to the procedure can in several cases:
- There are suspected epilepsy or the diagnosis is already exhibited, and it is necessary to clarify the patient's condition.
- There are problems from the cerebral circulation, diseases of the vessels.
- Card and brain injury. The brain is examined to eliminate the difficult consequences of suffering damage.
- Frequent episodes of vegetative dystonia.
- Convulsive syndromes in history. Check and identify the cause of the pathological condition.
With the help of EEG record information about the electrical activity of the brain, but this is an auxiliary method of diagnosis. The full picture can be obtained only by the integrated path.
Not the most informative method of diagnosis. Distributed in the form of simplicity. Appointed with complaints about neurological manifestations: headaches, tremor, etc. does not give sufficient information about the state of the brain. Like CT, X-ray is designed to explore the bones of the skull. Excellent for visualization of deformations, congenital pathologies and anomalies, also the effects of injuries.
In some cases, it allows you to suspect the pituitary tumors, cysts, tin formation of a solid cerebral shell. In any case, this technique gives only general information and not always. You need an in-depth study.
You can check your head without MRI, both by ultrasound and using computed tomography, x-ray, EEG. To learn about the state of the brain as much as possible, a whole complex of techniques is required.
Ultrasound of the neck and blood vessels are a specialized diagnostic procedure that allows us to conclude the state of the brain veins, arteries, blood flow.
The content of the article:
Ultrasound of the neck and blood vessels are a specialized diagnostic procedure that allows us to conclude the state of the brain veins, arteries, blood flow.
Ultrasound of the neck and blood vessels - for which it is necessary
The study of vascular diseases today is impossible without carrying out ultrasound diagnostics. Today, the ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and head allows you to identify many pathology of vessels and their diseases. The modern environmental situation provokes changes in vessels, and the consequence of this is serious violations of health.
What is the essence of the ultrasound of the neck and blood vessels
Ultrasonic scanning is used to ensure that the doctor can see the true picture of the state of the head and neck vessels. The principle is simple: high-frequency ultrasonic waves penetrate the tissue and soft structures of the body, returning as an image on the monitor of the machine.
With the help of ultrasound, experts can find out in what condition are the brain and neck vessels. This is very important, because the whole body of the person is permeated with vessels, and the slightest violation of one of them immediately leads to a violation of health in general. The cervical and head vessels play a crucial role, since they supply the most important organ - the human brain. Today, the ultrasound of the cervical vessels is carried out in many medical centers and polyclinics.
How to prepare for the ultrasound of the neck and blood vessels
The ultrasonic method of examining the vessels is good because to prepare you do not have to use some strict diets and fill the bladder. If you are prescribed to receive any drugs, it does not need to stop it. The only thing that should be adhere to is not to drink in the morning before the tea or coffee procedure. Refrain also from cigarettes. If some specific questions arise, then you can ask them to your attending physician.
How to carry out ultrasound neck and head vessels and follow-up actions
Having come to the medical center for a survey with the help of an ultrasound, one should not worry - this procedure is completely painless. Diagnosis is carried out in the lying condition. A gel is applied on the patient's neck, after which the doctor gently examines with a vessel sensor, conducting the device on the skin.
Currently, in order to identify the diseases of the vessels of the head and neck, the duplex research method is often used. The duplex scanning method is based on the capture of echo, reflected from blood flow by vessels. Using along with the traditional ultrasound of the cervical vessels, this diagnosis can be understood which disease is developing in vessels.
If the patient has venous insufficiency or thrombosis, the walls of the vessels turned out to be thinned, and the brain circulation was broken - then the scanning of the duplex way will allow to identify all these diseases and on time to prescribe treatment. It is possible that you will need to receive drugs from the strong-series, since the aggressive impact on the vessels can optimize their activities.
The pathology of the vessels of the neck and head can manifest themselves in different ways. Most often, a person is experiencing constant dizziness, headaches, he has noise in the ears and even fainting. All this suggests that due to the regular narrowing of the vessels or other changes, oxygen starvation of the brain occurs. It is very dangerous, which means that the neck of the neck should not worry you - because health is still more expensive.
How the ultrasound of the neck and blood vessels decrypt
Thanks to the timely examination of the neck and vessels of the head, you can find out where atherosclerotic plaques are located in the vessels, how much the vessel structure is changed, whether the stenosis is observed, what is the speed of blood flow and its direction. It is possible that you may have a vegetual-vascular dystonia or atherosclerosis - all this will be found during the diagnosis. If you are interested in the ultrasound vessels of the neck price, then its cost is quite democratic. But the price of delay in your case may turn out to be much higher - so do not postpone and pass the examination!
You have visited the neurologist, and to clarify and detail the diagnosis, he sent you on the ultrasound of the brain vessels. What is this study? What does it show? Do I need to go through it at all when there is an MRI?
We talked about this method of diagnosis with a neurologist, a leading specialist in the neurology of the "Clinic Expert Kursk" by Milder Natalia Vladimirovna.
- Natalia Vladimirovna, what is the ultrasound of the vessels of the brain and what reveals this study?
This is a modern type of diagnosis that allows you to appreciate the clearance of the vessel, the condition of its wall and adjacent fabrics, features of blood flow (both by arteries and venam). With this method, it is possible to determine the narrowings, obstruction of intracranial vessels, in some cases - sections of thrombosis with ischemic stroke. Sometimes used to assess the characteristics of the hemorrhagic stroke.
Ultrasound and MRI brain vessels
Do not exclude, and mutually
COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER
Ultrasound gives information about the structural anomalies of the vascular channel, the vertebral-basilar insufficiency, the vessel spasme.
- Ultrasound of vessels and dopplerography - is this one and the same study or are they different?
Not really. Ultrasonic Doppler (WSDG) is more "narrow" in the tasks of research. It allows you to determine the characteristics of blood flow, but it cannot ratify the condition of the vessel itself. With the help of ultrasound of the vessels of the brain, it is thus obtaining more detailed information than when performing only Doppler. To date, there is a more advanced study - ultrasound duplex scanning of vessels.
Read the material on the topic:
What will help the patient of the MRI of the brain vessels?
- During the ultrasound of the cerebral vessels, the doctor sees the neck vessels or are these two different research?
Ultrasound (as well as USDGs) of the vessels of the head and neck - different studies. It is better if the diagnosis of both regions is performed - the picture in this case will turn out to be more complete.
- What complaints from the patient are an indication for the appointment of a ultrasound examination of the brain vessels? Indications for the ultrasound of the brain vessels are quite extensive. These are headaches, dizziness, violations of consciousness, noise, ringing in the head and ears, the risk factors for the development of vascular pathologies (unstable blood pressure, the formation of blood clots in history, vasculitis, diabetes, lipid metabolism).
If you hit this page, because you need to go through the ultrasound of the brain vessels - you can find out the cost of the study by calling the phone indicated on the tab
Attention: the service is not available in all cities
- Natalia Vladimirovna, which of the research is better: ultrasound of brain vessels or MRT vessels?
There is no better. Each of them solves its range of tasks in which he is "stronger." For example, ultrasound evaluates the functional state of the vessels (in particular, spasm, tone disruption). MRI better "sees" smaller vessels, aneurysms, vascular malformations.
These methods are not excluded, and mutually complement each other.
Not really. Ultrasonic Doppler (WSDG) is more "narrow" in the tasks of research. It allows you to determine the characteristics of blood flow, but it cannot ratify the condition of the vessel itself. - There are diagnostic cases when the doctor for understanding the complete clinical picture is needed not only the results of the ultrasound of the vessels of the brain and MRI, but also encephalograms?
Yes. The electroencephalogram may be needed with some embarrassment, loss of consciousness, convulsions.
Why do you need electroencephalography? Full Guide for the Patient
- How is the ultrasound of the brain vessels? What is the duration of the study?
The procedure is performed more often in the position of the patient lying on the back. On the near-volumen temporal area (right / left), as well as under the occipital bone, in the region of the large occipital opening, an ultrasound device is installed and diagnosed is performed.
The duration of the survey is about 15-20 minutes.
- Does prepare for ultrasound examination of brain vessels?
There is no special preparation for this type of ultrasound.
- Are there any contraindications to the ultrasound of the brain vessels?
The only contraindication is any damage to the zones that the ultrasound sensor is installed.
- How safe is the study for adults and children? How often can it be done?
Absolutely safe. You can do it as often as you need to doctor.
- In order to make ultrasound brain vessels in your clinic, you need a director of a doctor?
Formally it is not required. However, if the patient comes from the attending doctor, the doctor ultrasound can receive additional information on what to emphasize its attention. Returning to the question of the study of the vessels of the head and neck: someone may need something one thing, someone - the complex. Or the patient will send immediately to the MRI of the vessels of the brain. All these moments can solve the attending physician.
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Vegetoe vascular dystonia - diagnosis or fiction?
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Medezekova Natalia Vladimirovna
Graduate of the Kursk State Medical University of 2004.
In 2005 he graduated from the internship with the specialty "Neurology".
Since 2015, he has been working in the "Clinic Expert Kursk", is a leading specialist in the neurology department. Takes at: ul. Karl Liebknecht, d. 7.
Frequent headaches and dizziness may be a consequence of vascular brain pathologies. In order to identify them, there are various methods of diagnosis and research, one of which is a duplex scanning of the neck and head vessels.
This method is non-invasive, and therefore is considered safe. It is especially attracted that it does not require any special training and has no contraindications.
What is a diagnostic method
This method of vascular diagnostics provides complete information about the state of the human vascular system. With the help of ultrasound, it is possible to estimate and analyze the speed and nature of blood flow, as well as determine the presence of thrombosis or other vascular pathologies.
The study usually takes place in two stages: two-dimensional mode and duplex study.
With a two-dimensional mode, you can see the vessels and the fabric adjacent to them, limited only to this information. He does not give any information about blood supply.
In a duplex study, the doctor sees a complete picture taking place in vessels, with a detailed description and color two-dimensional picture.
What is necessary for the procedure
Unlike a simple ultrasound, this diagnostic method gives the most complete information about the hard-to-reach vessels of the neck and head. Especially relevant is the brain, which is difficult to visualize.
Before the advent of the technique, the state of the brain was extremely difficult, if not almost impossible to say.
The diagnosis was carried out using ultrasound dopplerographic equipment. The uziste put the sensor to the problem zones and recorded the sound with the help of a special machine.
But see what happens in the cervical vessels and the brain was only possible when using a duplex scanning technique.
What is the difference between duplex and triplex scanning
These diagnostic methods are very similar to each other and practically do not have differences, with the only difference that, with triplex scanning, the vessels can be considered in three-dimensional space. Duplex mode represents information only in two planes. In fact, triplex scanning is positioned as an additional procedure when conducting a duplex study.
And if you consider that the crystal, the transmitting and receiving signal is used in the same one, then the resolution of the triplex method is considered a little worse than duplex. The quality of work will be fully dependent on the quality of the apparatus and qualifications of the doctor, conducting research, and not from the diagnostic method.
Who needs a procedure
Usually, the doctor prescribes such a procedure to the patient if it is diagnosed with: atherosclerosis or endarteritic, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, or vasculitis, aortic aneurysm, diabetic angiopathy, various injuries of vessels, varicose veins, vascular anomalies of head and neck, vertebral artery syndrome.
Such a survey is shown as screening in asymptomatic diseases and as control after operational intervention in the blood system vessels.
- Currently, the transcranial duplex scanning of the neck and head vessels is considered the main method of studying the vascular system. It is done with the help of an ultrasound with a color doppler mapping, as well as by spectral analysis.
- The main indications for such a survey are:
- dizziness, strong headaches, migraines;
- increased intracranial pressure;
- worsening memory, attention;
- the curvature of the spine in the cervical department, hernia in this area;
- loss of hearing;
- chronic and acute brain ischemia;
- vasculitis and diabetes;
vascular brain pathology;
Various brain diseases with detected bleeding disorders after surgery.
Preparation for and contraindication
This technique is especially popular exactly that absolutely harmless and has no contraindications. Such a procedure can be carried out to patients regardless of age: both children and elderly. You can repeat the manipulation as many times as you need until the diagnosis is not set.
In addition, the diagnostic examination does not require any preliminary training. But there are some recommendations that will make this procedure much more efficiently.
On the day of the survey, refuse nicotine and any other substances that affect the tone of vessels to one degree or another. It::
If you eat any drugs, such as adaptogens (chinese lemongrass, zhen-sin, etc.) Magnesium, piracetam, Vinpocetin, pre-warn about it the neurologist, who prescribed this procedure. Before scanning you need to get rid of jewelry from the neck and head: earrings, chains, hairpins and others. After the examination, it is necessary to carefully wash your head.
How proceeds proceeds
This method of diagnostics is absolutely painless and does not require general or local anesthesia. The patient will examine standing, lying or sitting, depending on which authority it is necessary to inspect.
The skin surface is lubricated with a special gel that facilitates the signal. Then the uzier sends the sensor to the desired area.
In duplex scanning of the brain, the sensor is applied to the places of the so-called "ultrasonic windows" - parts of the cranial box, where the bones are thinner or where physiological openings are in them.
Through such zones, the ultrasound beam easily enters the cavity of the skull.
During the patient's procedure, it may be necessary to adopt more convenient to examine postures. The doctor may also ask to delay their breath or make any other similar actions. The manipulation lasts about half an hour and does not cause absolutely no discomfort.
Advantages and disadvantages of the methodology
The advantages of this technique of surveys include the identification of vascular diseases such as aneurysm or atherosclerosis, in the early stages, the most reliable data on the condition of blood flow and the vascular brain system. This is an easy way to diagnose vascular pathologies, detecting thrombosis.
The most important advantage of the method is to identify diseases in the early stages, when there are no clinical manifestations.
This method is safe, it can be carried out as much as you need. In addition, it is non-invasive, which means that it does not need to use any medications. This is also a significant plus, since it is obviously eliminating the presence of possible allergic reactions or side effects.
Duplex scanning of the neck and head vessels is one of the most efficient, inexpensive and informative diagnostic method. It is absolutely harmless and safe, does not require any special training. Research allows you to identify diseases and vascular pathologies in the early stages of their development. Druzhikina Victoria Yurevna .
Specialty: Therapist, neurologist .
Common experience: 5 years .
Place of work: Buz oo "Korsakovskaya CRH" .
Orlovsk State University named after I.S. Turgenev
- We will be grateful if you use the buttons:
What is brachiocephalus vessels and how do they help explore the ultrasound head and neck? Angiohururgist Alexander Pavlov responds to six popular questions.Alexander Pavlov
(phlebologist) of the highest category of medical center "Blossom clinic"
What is brachiocephalic arteries and for what they answer?
These are vessels that blood supply heads and hands. They are large and depart directly from the aortic arc. Brachiocephalus includes carotid arteries (most of the brain, the face and structure of the neck), vertebral artery (blood supply rear and stem brain stem, spinal cord at the neck level), connectural arteries (are responsible for the blood supply to the shoulder belt and hand).
In what cases a person can understand that with these arteries is not all right?
The importance of brachiocephalic vessels in the functioning of the body is very large, therefore, numerous mechanisms and anatomical structures have been formed, allowing the blood flow of the brain and hands even with serious lesions of one or more brachiocephalic arteries. On the one hand, this is the vital mechanisms, on the other hand, they largely close the clinical picture, and this often does not allow the patient to independently determine the reasons for the change.
Disorders of brachiocephalic vessels (not only arteries, but also veins) are manifested in different ways. These may be headaches and dizziness, the noise in the ears, impairment of vision, frequent loss of consciousness, numbness of limbs, weakness in hand or hands, convulsions, strokes, etc.
Perhaps the only testimony in which the patient can independently decide on the need to verify the brachiocephalic vessels with the help of ultrasounds will be the absence or a sharp weakening of the pulsation of the radial artery at the forearm (it is it is looking for when determining the pulse in everyday life) and sharply arising his hand swelling (indicates the need Checking the connector veins). In all other cases (with dizziness, numbness of the limbs, etc.), it is initially worth contacting the therapist, a neurologist or an ENT doctor, because such complaints may be due to completely different reasons - from arterial hypertension to purulent-inflammatory processes in the middle ear.
The reasons are very different, but the most frequent - atherosclerosis, which may appear, for example, due to improper nutrition, smoking. To one or another violations, such as thrombosis, can lead hormonal contraceptives, purulent-inflammatory diseases of the neck, face, skull structures, brain, systemic and autoimmune diseases. A number of pathological processes are due to external reasons: excessive development of certain muscles, additional anatomical structures (for example, additional edges).
What can show ultrasound BCA?
The ultrasound of brachiocephalic vessels shows their permeability, level and length of narrowing (stenosis) and complete blockage (occlusion) of the vessel, the pathological sinking of vessels, speed and direction of blood flow. If everything is sufficiently sufficiently enough for understanding, then the questions of the direction and speed of blood flow over the brachiocephalord vessels are not so easy to evaluate, and most importantly for further interpretation. There are pathological situations where the blood supply to the hand takes place through arteries that feed the brain: as a result, a "trusting" of the brain can occur during exercise, when a larger blood flow is directed toward the actively shrinking muscles of the hand.
It is possible to identify the convulsion of the arteries, but at the same time the rate and direction of blood flow will be normal, and sometimes with a smaller repayment without any narrowings there is a deficiency of perfusion (blood supply) of the brain. When ultrasound, it is sometimes possible to detect or suspect the external compression of the vessel by the edge or muscle, pathological expansion (aneurysm).
Unfortunately, the ultrasound does not allow to fully appreciate the normal structure and pathological changes in brachi detection vessels. On the one hand, this is due to complex anatomical relationship between the BTS, and on the other, so that a significant part of these vessels and anastomoses between them are located under the acoustic shadow of bone formations (clavicle, vertebral processes, skull bones). As a result, information on the state of brachiocephalic vessels obtained from the ultrasound will not always be exhaustive, it will rather serve as an additional specific examination - MRI, CT, cerebral panagography.
Who needs to do such an ultrasound?
Screening (that is, without indications), the ultrasound of the brachiocephalic vessels is not recommended as such. But, for example, American neurovalization society advises screening patients over 65 years old, which have three and more risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Of course, the risk group will be patients with symptoms of violations of the blood supply of the brain, i.e. transient ischemic attacks or strokes. But in most cases, such patients immediately fall into the field of view of doctors and a complete examination (including not only the ultrasound of the BCA), they are promptly appointed.
What do if the ultrasound showed the BCS changes?
If the study is performed according to indications, but the identified vessel changes do not require invasive (surgical) intervention, then the patient will, as a rule, will be prescribed by drug therapy, aimed at preventing thrombotic events and slowing the growth of the stenosis plaque, as well as drugs that increase the efficiency of brain metabolism. and neural transmission.
At the same time, the level of narrowing vessels should be controlled every 6-12 months, since, despite the therapy, an atherosclerotic plaques or a change in the external environment of the vessel is possible. If during the specified period, symptoms increase or the emergence of new symptoms, the study should be performed earlier.
The narrowing of the brain vessels is not a disease, but a symptom that accompanies several pathologies at once. Most often in the initial stages, it is manifested by headaches and reduced memory. Many patients take these signs for overwork and do not apply to the doctor. However, the progression of pathologies can lead to stroke or dementia. In the presence of manifestations of the narrowing of the brain vessels, please contact your doctor! The earlier start treatment, the more favorable forecast.
Sign up at the reception in the Polyclinic Otradny at a convenient time for you! Experienced doctors will destroy you on research and according to their results they will determine the causes of the narrowing of the brain vessels in your case. Next will be developed an individual treatment plan, thanks to which you can avoid complications and increase the quality of life.
Our brain is working daily with huge loads. For normal functioning, it needs a lot of nutrients and oxygen. They are delivered to the brain with blood flow through 4 main arteries: 2 sleepy and 2 vertebrates. The branches of the main vessels form a kind of circle at the base of the brain. It is called Willisyev - in honor of the scientist Thomas Willis, who in the 17th century for the first time introduced his description. This circle allows you to compensate for blood circulation in the defeat of one or more trunk vessels. The compensatory ability of this plexus is very high. In some cases, even with pathological processes in 3 of the 4 main arteries, a person can feel only insignificant discomfort.
However, compensatory capabilities are still not infinite. Therefore, sooner or later, the lesions of the brain vessels will manifest itself with noticeable violations. In the state of resting the brain for normal functioning requires about 15% of the blood volume circulating throughout the body. About 25% of oxygen inhaled by man comes to it. Brain vessels are susceptible to huge loads daily. At the same time, in a healthy state, they are incredibly elastic. However, with the regular effects of adverse factors, they are able to narrow, which will lead to a lack of oxygen and nutrients in brain tissues, which will negatively affect its work.
The insufficiency of blood supply to the brain is called discirculatory encephalopathy.
- Classification of the stenosis of brain vessels
- In the form of a narrowing happens:
Acute - this state can entail a stroke or a fatal outcome.
- Chronic - develops gradually, slowly, a person can no longer suspect anything about pathological processes.
- Chronic narrowing of vessels has 3 stages of development:
- When first, the patient experiences minor headaches, drowsiness, chronic fatigue, observes scattle and small forgetfulness.
In the second, severe headaches, gait disorders, a significant reduction in disability, mood swings, the malfunction of the urinary system.
In the third stage, dementia is developing (dementia) - the patient loses the independence and ability of household self-service, there are obvious problems with coordination of movements, involuntary urine.
Why occurs stenosis of brain vessels The main causes of the narrowing of the brain vessels are:
Atherosclerosis of brain vessels - The pathological process, in which, due to the violation of lipid metabolism on the walls of the arteries, cholesterol plaques are formed. Plaques, raging, with time replaced with a connecting cloth. This narrows the clearance of the vessel and reduces its permeability. Sleepy arteries are most susceptible to atherosclerosis. The plaque can completely procure the clearance of the vessel.
Hypertonic disease - This is a chronic pathology in which arterial hypertension is observed (increase in pressure), in most cases by unspecified reasons. With this disease, up to 40% of people suffer. Regular pressure drops affect the elasticity of vessels. Their tissue is pathologically changed, the walls are compacted, local narrowings appear. Over time, the clearance of the vessel is able to completely closed.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical department
- manifests itself by deformation of intervertebral discs. They are able to clamp the vertebral arterys, according to which blood comes to the brain.
- The narrowing of the brain vessels can be observed in patients of any age, including children. In the risk group there are people who suffer from such diseases as:
Cardiovascular pathologies (cardiac rhythm failures, ischemic disease, etc.).
- Hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol).
- Also the possibility of narrowing the brain vessels increases:
- Abuse alcohol.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Frequent stress and emotional overvoltage.
- Mental overload.
- Rare stay in the fresh air - with a lack of oxygen, arterial pressure can increase.
Genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases.
- Symptoms of the narrowing of the brain vessels
- In the initial stages, the narrowing is manifested by the following signs:
- Reduced memory (especially often in such situations, people forget the events that happened to them quite recently).
- Deterioration of trainee and ability to work.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Loss of interest in what is happening.
- Depressive states.
- Mood swings.
- Emotional instability.
Problems with concentration of attention.
Sleep disorders: insomnia, anxious sleep.
- If the treatment is carried out at this stage, the violations can be eliminated and restored the quality of the patient's life.
- When progressing pathology, there are:
- Violations of speech.
- Noise in the head.
- Reduced hearing.
- Hand shake.
- Long-sized brain vessels are able to cause development:
Hemorrhagic stroke - manifests a breakdown of a vessel with subsequent hemorrhage in the brain.
Ischemic stroke - violations of blood supply to the departments of the brain due to the blockage of blood vessels.
- The diagnosis of the narrowing of the brain vessels is carried out by a neurologist. To estimate the state of the vessels and blood flow in them:
- Ultrasonic Doppler - allows you to study the speed of blood flow and identify the narrowings of the vessels.
- Angiography - makes it possible to assess the state of the nervous stems of the vessels.
- Duplex scanning - to determine the state of the vessel walls, detecting essences, atherosclerotic plaques and thrombones.
Evaluation of the state of the fundus - the cells of the eye dna are associated with the neurons of the brain, and vascular disorders and the change in the nerve cells in the eye field area can talk about brain pathologies.
- It is necessary to eliminate the cause of the narrowing of the vessels, since if this is not done, pathology will progress. Hypertension, atherosclerosis or cervical osteochondrosis is treated. With hypertension prescribe:
- Hypotensive preparations (reduction in pressure).
- Antiagregants - medicines warning the occurrence of thromboms.
Vitamin complexes with the content of vitamins C, PP and B6.
- Diet with a restriction of salt use.
- Atherosclerosis treatment implies:
Statins are reduced blood cholesterol.
- The diet with the limitation of animal fats.
- With cervical osteochondrosis, assign:
- Carrying a corset to maintain the right position of the back and neck.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Physiotherapeutic procedures.
- Symptomatic therapy is also carried out. Depending on violations caused by narrowing vessels, can be assigned:
- Preparations that improve metabolic processes in the brain - with memory loss.
- Medicines, strengthening vessels - with dizziness.
Massage and therapeutic physical culture - with disorders of motor functions.
Antidepressants and sedatives - with emotional disorders and depression.
For the prevention of multi-infarction states of the brain, patients take anticoagulants - preparations that reduce blood clotting.
When violating blood flow by more than 50%, surgical treatment can be appointed - stenting. This extension using a stent - frame, which is installed in the clearance of the vessel. The operation allows you to expand the vessel and restore blood flow in it.
- Prevention of the narrowing of brain vessels
- Fully avoiding the probability of narrowing brain vessels is quite difficult. However, some preventive measures will greatly reduce the risk of developing pathology. Need:
- Revise the diet.
- Pay attention to moderate physical exertion in order not to allow congestive processes.
- Get rid of excess weight if it is.
- To refuse from bad habits.
Try more often to go outdoors, organizing active leisure.
- Training stress resistance.
- The revision of the dietary implies:
The inclusion of the most rich useful substances of products in it: fresh vegetables and fruits, low-fat meat, fish, greenery.