Do-it-yourself bath is cheap and fast and very simple
After building a house on their site, most land owners think about building a good steam room there. In this case, the work is supposed to be done by hand, and the bath should be built quickly, cheaply and very simply. Satisfying these criteria is not easy, but still possible.
It is hardly worth relying on other people's projects or ordering overly expensive individual building plans. In most cases, a small building is required to meet the needs of a family of 2-3 people.
The bathhouse is a place with a special comfort and aura, which requires careful observance of the conditions, rules and stages of construction. On the modern market there is a wide variety of materials, thanks to which the construction of a steam room can be carried out very quickly and fairly cheaply.
To build it yourself, you need to think about a few points.
- Place of the future bath. Its location should not be randomly chosen. There are a number of prescriptions and tips that will help you determine the territory for future construction.
- From what the foundation will be laid, what form it will be.
- The dimensions of the building. Masters advise to calculate the area in such a way that each person has about 3-4 square meters. For this reason, it is necessary to think in advance what the approximate number of people will visit the bathhouse.
- Material, quantity, purchase.
- Choose the type of heating (electric boiler or traditionally - wood). A traditional Russian bath requires a real stove. Modern steam rooms are increasingly equipped with an electric heater, which quickly heats the room to a given temperature, and also does not require constant fire maintenance.
- Decorations and accessories. It is always pleasant to be in a nice and clean room. This also applies to the bath. Exterior finish plays an important role. Qualitative and skillful design will always contribute to complete physical relaxation and peace of mind. Do not forget about bath accessories (buckets, brooms, hats and others). Of course, without them, you can steam and wash yourself well, but there are special occasions in life when “bath romance” is simply necessary.
You can get to work only when the owner has decided on all the stages. Otherwise, this process can be delayed for a long time without exact dates for the end.
Experienced masters in the construction of baths are advised to carefully consider all the details and not to rush during construction. Especially when you do it yourself. It takes a lot of effort to make this place a truly real bathhouse, and not just a room where you can wash.
Small bath project
Ideally, the bath includes 4 rooms in its design:
- dressing room;
- steam room.
Sauna with washing and relaxation room
It is possible to expand the functionality of some rooms by combining them with each other. At the same time, the comfort from the stay is not lost. The overall size of the building will largely depend on how many people will be inside at the same time.
- 1.20 mx 2.50 m. Very compact solution. In this case, the bathhouse consists of only two rooms: a steam room and a dressing room. The dimensions of the first are 1.20 mx 1.50 m, the second - 1 mx 1.20 m. There is no rest room, and in the dressing room it will be possible to change calmly. The washroom can be combined with a steam room. This size will be enough for one person.
- 2.50 mx 2.50 m. In terms of the number of premises - the same as the first option. The size of the steam room is 2.50 mx 1.50 m, the dressing room is 1 mx 2.50 m. At the same time, it will be possible to organize additional space for storing firewood. In such conditions, two people can easily fit.
- 3 m × 3 m. This option can be planned in different ways. If there is a desire for three people to fit in the steam room, then it can be made 3 mx 1.50 m in size, the washing room can be made separate by placing a shower stall there. The size of this room will be 1 m × 1.50 m. There is also a dressing room of 2 m × 1.5 m. You can combine a washing room and a steam room, then there is a space that can be used as a relaxation room, which will also serve as a dressing room.
- 4 m × 3 m. In this case, 4 m2 can be separated for a steam room (eg 2 m × 2 m). The washing room will occupy 1 m × 1.50 m, 2 m × 3 m will remain for the rest room.In such conditions, four people can easily fit. They can simultaneously be in the steam room, as well as enjoy communication in the dressing room.
- 4 m × 4 m. In such a territory, it is already possible to turn around well. The steam room can be left 2 mx 2 m in size. A separate dressing room should be 2 mx 1.50 m in size. The rest room in this case turns out to be 4 mx 2 m (one of the sides will be 2.50 m). The washing room can be combined with a relaxation room; for this, an electric boiler and a shower stall are installed. They can be placed in one of the corners of the room, which does not take up much space.
Frame bath 4 * 5 Layout of small baths
These are indicative examples. You can easily vary the size of the premises within the available limits. You may want to make the steam room smaller, because there is no need for 4 people to be there at the same time. At the same time, it will be possible to expand the space of the rest room.
Note! All measurements are in ideal values without taking into account the thickness of the walls. This is done for clarity. In the case when the bath will be adjacent to the house, then it can be made in the form of one steam room. At the same time, the bathroom will act as a washing room, and the rest of the territory is available for relaxation.
Examples of country baths
In photo # 1 we see the simplest bathhouse, reminiscent of the barrel of Diogenes. You can only take a steam bath in it. It will not be possible to wash here, since there is no sewage system in the building. However, if desired, it is not difficult to do it. To do this, you need to install a standard shower tray in the corner of the bath and bring the drain pipe into the septic tank.
Photo №1 Build such a "barrel-bath" at the dacha and steam for your pleasure
An important advantage of this design is its low weight, which allows it to be placed on a plank terrace.
The device of the simplest bathhouse from the container category is shown in photo # 2.
Photo No. 2 Option of a container summer cottage
It consists of one steam room. For washing, the owner needs to attach a canopy with a summer shower or supplement the room with sewerage, and the stove with a tank for heating water.
Photo # 3
Improvising on the theme of a barrel-shaped bath, let's pay attention to cellular polycarbonate. From it you can quickly and easily assemble an original design. In order for it to keep heat well, you will need two large sheets of this material and a frame made of metal or wooden bars. A mineral wool insulation, 10 cm thick, is laid between them.
Photo # 4
The ends of the structure can be made of boards by stuffing them on a wooden insulated frame. Place such a bath anywhere: at the dacha, on the polar ice floe or on the summit of Everest and you will always be comfortable in its steam room (photo # 5).
Photo # 5 Simple barrel-shaped sauna
A small Russian bath, made from scraps of timber, can be installed on oak posts. We see an example of such a structure in photo # 6.
Photo # 6 Oak posts - an excellent support for a small wooden bath
Larger structures need their own foundations. Three options are possible here:
- Rubble concrete tape.
- Brick posts.
- Piles from asbestos-cement pipes.
Do not forget that the type of foundation affects the choice of material and construction of the walls. Pile and columnar bases are used to install a wooden frame, as well as for baths made of timber or logs (photos No. 7 and No. 8).
Photo №7 Bathhouse from SIP panels on screw piles
Photo №8 Brick posts - the best option for timber, log and frame construction
"Tape" made of rubble concrete is suitable for any walls (from gas silicate blocks, logs and frame).
Photo # 9
A cheap, reliable and simple version of the bath is obtained using a technology called "clay". For such a structure, you will need a little: a car of firewood, a cart of straw and a dump truck of clay (photo # 10).
Photo # 10
The best shape for a wood-burning structure is round. It eliminates the need to reinforce the masonry corners, looks aesthetically pleasing and original.
Borrowing from birds the technology of building nests from branches and clay, you can build just such a simple and warm bath (photo No. 11).
Photo №11 Wicker frame coated with clay - "know-how" of inexpensive bath construction
The simplest bath project 4 by 5
A simple project of a bathhouse in the country consists of a minimum set of components. The building consists of one floor. In this project, there is no vestibule, the purpose of which is to separate cold air from the street and hot air from the room. If there is no waiting room, then you cannot use the bath in the cold season. Hot air will cause condensation to form on the door.
The project assumes the presence of the following premises:
- Rest room with dimensions 2.85 * 4 meters. Furniture and appliances are placed in it.
- In the sink, measuring 1.8 * 2, there is a toilet, a sink and a shower.
- The size of the steam room is 2 * 2, there is a stove in it.
Sauna project with a terrace 4 to 5
This option is similar to a simple project, but is complemented by a terrace. If desired, it can be glazed or arranged as a comfortable place to relax.
The design includes the following premises:
- The terrace is 1.5 * 4 meters in size.
- Rest room 2 * 3.5 meters.
- Shower room 1.5 * 2 m.
- Steam room 2 * 2 m.
Bath with dressing room 4 to 5
The project provides for the placement of a dressing room with a size of 1.1 * 1.7 m. This room allows you to use a summer cottage in cold weather. You can also store firewood in it.
From the dressing room you can go into a small corridor and a rest room. From there, a door leads to a washing and steam room.
Choosing the best place for building a bath
To make a bathhouse correctly and correctly choose its location, you need to adhere to all SNiP norms. Important attention should be paid to the material for the construction of the building. The choice of location should be carried out taking into account some distances in relation to other objects.
Here they are:
- the distance from the bath to the neighboring territory to the fence must be at least one meter;
- any building made of wood must be located at a distance of at least 15 meters;
- it is worth considering the remoteness from the garage, wells and pools, as well as from playgrounds;
- the bathhouse should be located at a distance of at least 8 meters from residential buildings;
- the distance from the carriageway or street must be at least 5 m;
- this building, like any other, should not cast a shadow on the neighboring site.
A good option is the location of the building near the reservoir
Before building a bath, consider the features of the site: design, climatic conditions and soil characteristics, features of the local landscape area and soil properties. If the territory is uneven, then it is better to carry out construction on an elevated area, since this will ensure an optimal water flow. You should not install such a building on sandy ground. In any case, the foundation should be strengthened. The harder the soil layer, the better. Most often, the construction of such structures is planned from the leeward side of the main buildings. This placement protects against heavy rainfall.
This design can be a great addition to landscape design.
For your information! Especially carefully it is worth planning the location to the reservoir. Wastewater should not fall into the clean water of a pond or other body of water.
Baths at their summer cottage: an overview of options
After deciding where to build such a structure in the garden, think over the appropriate material for the construction. You can build different buildings on your own. In the photo you can see the following types of buildings:
Beautiful version of the frame structure
- baths made of rounded logs or beams;
Robust timber construction
- buildings made of stone, brick and blocks;
Combined version with stone
When selecting materials, it is necessary to monitor the quality. If the lumber is substandard, this will affect the durability of buildings. Do not use unpolished boards for shelving and shelving. Also, do not save on materials for truss structures. All wood elements must be treated with special antiseptic compounds. This must be done even if renovation is in progress.
Wooden elements must undergo additional processing
How to correctly plan a bath for a summer residence
When deciding how to build a bath, consider various projects. The important point is the layout inside. This takes into account the number of people who will be in the room at the same time. In the video below you can see how to do it yourself.
Practical solutions include a scheme in which there is a mini steam room for two people and a compact dressing room.
For a small family, a mini bath is suitable, the area of which is 3 × 4. In this case, the building should also include additional premises. Even a small bath should contain a dressing room and a washing room. In the photo you can see miniature buildings, the size of which is 2 × 3. The construction of spacious rooms involves an increase in the steam room and shelves.
The diagram shows the project of a small bath 2 * 3
The bathhouse in combination with the guest house is also popular. Ready-made drawings will help you choose the best project, according to which you can make a structure with your own hands. Turnkey construction can also be ordered. In this case, the price will depend on the materials used and the version of the project. It can be a mini sauna or a spacious bath with additional rooms.
Combination with a guest house
How to properly attach a bath to the house
When deciding how to make a bath, consider the option with a terrace. In the video below you can see the features of this project:
This design is practical and popular. A sauna in the house with an additional room will allow you to use it in any weather conditions.
Option for an extension to the main building
The photo shows a variety of options for such designs. This provides a warm rest, the absence of insects, in addition, a refrigerator, a bar counter, a TV and even a music center can be installed in the recreation room. Thus, a sauna is being built in a frame building. It is necessary to allocate additional area for the room at the design stage.
Layout option for a building with a terrace, steam room, dressing room and washing
The traditional home sauna includes a washroom, steam room and dressing room. At the same time, the dressing room was previously unheated and served for changing clothes. In addition, a variety of bath utensils were stored in it. Often it is in this room that a rest room is equipped, where you can sit and drink tea. In summer, by the way, there will be a terrace.
The attached bath will save space on the site. In this case, the recreation room can be located in a residential building. In this case, the sauna can be located both close to the house and at a distance of 1-1.5 meters, and the buildings should be connected by a warm corridor. If the extension is next to the house, then the depth of the foundation should be the same as that of the main building. But the sewer must be equipped separately.
Extension of a small bathhouse to the house
Helpful information! If the dacha is small, then the recreation room can be located in the attic of the building. In this case, this part is insulated and heated. In this case, you can use foam or mineral wool. In addition, the attic should have additional floor reinforcement.
What is cheaper to build a bath from
Do not deny yourself the pleasure of taking a steam bath in your own bath, if your financial capabilities are limited. Along with expensive saunas made of high-quality timber, there are many alternative options that will allow you to experience all the charm of the process of going to the sauna and not cause serious harm to the family budget.
Bath projects in the classical sense are unchanged. All the same furnaces, steam rooms, different sizes and different budgets. It is not difficult to choose one thing (building materials) if the ultimate goal is determined immediately: this is a place for frequent washing, a recreation area or something else. Consider the features of building a bath with your own hands from different materials.
Small wooden bath
Wood is a classic material for building baths. Wood is prized for its environmental friendliness and ease of processing. Wooden baths warm up quickly, and essential resins released into the air have a beneficial effect on the well-being of visitors.
However, wood is far from ideal for construction. In order for the walls of the bath to be even, you need to choose a high-quality bar or log. Do not forget about shrinkage. The better the wood is dried, the lower the percentage of shrinkage and the risk that the frame will "lead".
It is important to be able to work with an ax and a saw, to have sufficient physical strength and endurance to cut down locks for connecting corners, external and internal walls, floors. Of course, you can buy a ready-made log house with delivery to the site, but this is associated with additional costs and is not relevant for the construction of a budget bath. It is best to do the construction with at least two people, because alone it is extremely difficult to lay the crowns, especially the upper ones.
Bath from a bar
Hardwood, such as linden, is best suited for building a bath. This material is considered relatively light, therefore, if the geological conditions of the area allow, you can save on the foundation and limit yourself to a lightweight tape option (monolithic or prefabricated).
What else can you save on? For example, for insulation and decoration. If the bath will be used for its intended purpose only in the warm season, there is no need to purchase insulation, battens for lathing, steam and wind insulation, decorative finishing material for the bath's facade. The tree, if it is properly sanded and coated with a protective impregnation, varnish, is quite aesthetically pleasing and fits perfectly into the landscape design of private land plots.
Two-storey poplar bath
In a budget bath, you can save on the organization of a full-fledged sewage system and water supply. Since ancient times, in Russian baths, the floors were made pouring, and water was carried in buckets in advance. Yes, this causes some inconvenience, but it will not spoil the overall pleasant experience of bathing procedures.
What can you not save on? Wood is a highly flammable material. It is worth a little oversight, not closing the blower door, as a falling-out hot coal will lead to a fire and damage to property. A similar situation is possible if fire safety rules are disregarded when installing the stove and installing the chimney. Therefore, in no case should you save on:
- fire-retardant impregnation;
- fire-fighting cutting;
- materials for insulating the floor in front of the firebox and the walls of the bath from the heat of the stove.
We strongly do not recommend saving on fasteners. Firstly, the difference will be insignificant, and secondly, low-quality metal hardware will quickly begin to rust, and ugly black smudges will appear on the walls. The worst thing that rusted fasteners will lead to is the collapse of building elements due to the loss of nodes of their strength.
It is very important to properly organize ventilation in wooden baths. Even if the bath is only 4-6 square meters. Visitors are unlikely to enjoy the musty and mildew scent, and the owner will not be pleased with rotting floors and walls.
Now more specifically about the prices of wood, to roughly calculate the cost of construction.
Sawn timber Species Section or diameter, cm Price in rubles per cubic meter
|Profiled timber||Pine, spruce||140x140||From 11.5 to 14.5 thousand rubles.|
|Profiled timber||Larch||140x140||From 16.5 to 18.5 thousand rubles.|
|Round timber||Larch||180 to 460||From 8.5 to 10 thousand rubles.|
|Carriage||Larch||150x250||From 15 thousand rubles.|
* The average cost of building materials is relevant for 2017.
Based on the cost of new sawn timber, a budget bath will definitely not work. The way out of the situation is to buy a used timber at a price of 1000 rubles per cubic meter or from 80 rubles per 1 piece. Used pallets can also come in handy if they are used correctly.
Baths from foam blocks
Previously, such a material would hardly have been used for the construction of a bath, due to the relatively large pores and hygroscopicity. But over the past 30 years, the technologies for the production of aerated concrete blocks have changed greatly, which makes its use in the construction of baths safe and environmentally friendly. It is possible to use additional finishing materials in order to reduce the access of moisture to the foam blocks. This is very important, as aerated concrete is a very porous material and can absorb a lot of moisture, which leads to the growth of bacteria and even destruction of the material. But foam blocks are often used in the construction of baths, since they have a number of advantages over other building materials. These advantages are:
- High heat capacity. This will ensure that the desired temperature in the steam room is maintained;
- Lack of flammability. For any bath, it is important to reduce the fire hazard;
- Possibility of building on a light foundation;
- Low cost;
- Convenience in construction - not only professional builders can work with foam blocks;
- There are no problems with shrinkage of the structure. Unlike wooden baths, a foam block bath can be used immediately after the end of construction;
- Environmental friendliness. The use of foam concrete blocks made by chemical methods for residential premises is prohibited;
Among the disadvantages, it should be noted the possibility of condensation accumulation and the growth of bacteria on internal surfaces. This must be taken into account when planning construction and additional work to prevent such consequences. The project of a foam block bath can be mastered even by a person without special education, this is a very democratic material.
Bath from cinder blocks
The choice of cinder blocks as the main building material will allow you to build a bath quickly, efficiently and with the lowest material costs. In terms of their qualities, they are almost a building stone. Today it is the cheapest building material for the construction of baths.
Cinder blocks are a very light building material, so they are easy to transport, store, store and use. It is possible to erect a structure from cinder blocks in a very short time. They fit easily, do not require the participation of specialists. Cinder blocks allow you to realize any design ideas.
But the disadvantage of a cinder block bath is that the walls require additional finishing. External finishing is needed to give a more aesthetic appearance. But the interior decoration is dictated by technical requirements. Cinder blocks react very poorly to moisture.
Analyzing the pros and cons of various building materials in relation to a specific project and certain landscape conditions, you can choose the option that will significantly save material resources.
Bath made of bricks
Despite the fact that brick is a rather expensive material, it is sometimes advisable to build a bath from this material. Perhaps the construction costs will be slightly higher than when using other building materials, but when other factors are taken into account, such baths may become the most economically viable. The first factor is the durability of brick structures. The design of the bath is exposed not only to natural temperature fluctuations, but also to the need to maintain a high temperature in the steam room. Baths made of not very high-quality wood can have problems such as cracks in the timber, shrinkage. And brick buildings are very resistant to any temperature extremes.
It is also important that the brick perfectly withstands high humidity modes. If at the construction stage, waterproofing and insulation works are correctly performed, then there will be no equal in durability to a brick building.
Brick is popular in the construction of baths and due to the absence of the danger of fire. Brick buildings perfectly retain heat, but at the same time they are not subject to smoldering and burning. It is only important to close some areas of brick structures with wooden parts so that the heated brick does not become a source of danger during the use of the bath. It significantly reduces the cost of construction and the fact that brick buildings do not need facade cladding to give a good appearance. Brick buildings look great on the site, fit well into the entire complex of outbuildings. Among the disadvantages, it can be noted that in winter it is advisable to keep the bath warm in order to create a good microclimate. Wooden baths warm up much faster, but the use of a brick bath is possible only if the temperature regime is maintained.
We save wisely
The construction of a bath in a limited budget does not mean disregard for the basic building rules, norms and principles, and common sense should be at the forefront. Therefore, we will try to form the key postulates of economical, but at the same time reasonable and high-quality construction, as it is now fashionable to call a "budget bath":
- Sadly, but in all likelihood, you will have to abandon the construction of a log bath from a cylindrical bar. High-quality material is expensive, and building a bathhouse of a very miniature size is fundamentally wrong. This statement does not apply to people living in abundant forest areas, where the forest stands outside the border of their own vegetable garden. In this case, the desire is reinforced by the presence of a good chainsaw, 3-4 loyal comrades and a couple of bottles of inexpensive vodka to appease the goblin or, at worst, the forester. For residents of treeless areas, the option of building from bricks, cinder block, bentonite should be considered. Used stone is also suitable for rough masonry. Inside it is still sheathed with wood, but outside it is always possible to ennoble the structure with an unedged, low-quality board sewn with an overlap and treated with a stain in the color of bog oak;
- Choose a stove without a remote firebox. On the one hand, this option is cheaper, on the other hand, such a furnace has a higher fuel efficiency. In most cases, simple baths are equipped with a metal welded oven. A stone oven, even in the most simplified version, is a costly product that requires both materials and skills. A metal stove is much more affordable for self-production. The material, with a certain skill, can also be looked after at the scrap metal collection points, and the services of a qualified welder are cheaper than the services of a bricklayer-stove maker.
Attention! Under the stove, even a simple and small-sized one, you will have to lay out a stone stove corner and build a base. This remark applies to those who decided to erect a structure of wood, on a frame and when using other technologies that do not provide for the construction of walls from non-combustible mineral materials.
- Organization of the foundation. The simplest and fastest, prefabricated belt, erected from blocks of the FBS type. Firstly, there is no need to erect a full-profile formwork, and secondly, the volume of concrete work is drastically reduced. Blocks can be purchased second-hand, in most cases this does not affect the quality of the foundation. Delivery and installation of blocks can be combined by ordering a car with a crane-manipulator installation, in recent years they have firmly entered the construction life and have ceased to be something exotic;
- Make the roof low, squat, with a ratio to the height of the walls of about 1: 3. Thus, you will reduce the roof area, to some extent increase the energy efficiency of the structure and save on the height and length of the chimney;
- The hot water supply problem can be solved by tying the water tank around the chimney in the first third of the flue gas outflow. In addition, it is quite possible to abandon the shower and toilet. The shower stall is perfectly replaced by a tilting tub of water. Cheap and traditional;
- Arrangement of windows. To provide sufficient light, give preference to rational placement on the cardinal points rather than window areas. It is not necessary to use a metal-plastic profile in conjunction with double-glazed windows. It is enough to insulate the wooden ones and get the minimum required effect. Fortunately, there are plenty of tools for this, these are films and insulation tapes and so on.
Typical construction mistakes
To avoid problems with the performance of the bath, it is worth considering the most common errors:
- Carefully calculate the size of the premises based on the number of people.
- Correct ceiling heights. You should not make ceilings below 2 meters, since it is not comfortable to be in such a room. In a room with ceilings higher than 2.4 m, heat carriers are overrun.
- For windows, the southern and western walls are allocated, and for the door - the southern.
- The windows are not made too large - this will help to avoid excessive heat loss.
- Use energy efficient materials.
- Choose quality equipment.
We build ourselves: quickly, inexpensively, reliably
In this section, we will talk about how to build a simple do-it-yourself bath. Let this be not a step-by-step instruction, but a kind of code of the main fundamental and key points.
What you shouldn't save on
When calculating the budget and planning the construction, one should not forget that the simplest do-it-yourself bath should not contain materials:
- Fire hazardous.
- Susceptible to the destructive effects of high humidity.
- Toxic and prohibited for use, based on sanitary and hygienic requirements.
- You should not save on wiring and lighting elements.
- The manufacture of stoves and chimneys should also be taken with full responsibility, since in addition to the flame, they can give rise to another enemy, and the invisible one - carbon monoxide.
A word from the Experienced! It is strongly not recommended to use foam plastic for warming a steam room. Yes, it is affordable, lightweight, relatively durable and easy to install. But at the same time, it is prone to the release of toxic substances into the steam room, especially in conditions of elevated temperature. A good alternative in terms of economy and ecology would be sawdust, poured into the sinuses of the walls and ceiling. The only condition is good waterproofing with film materials, even if they are inexpensive.
Video about building a bath yourself.
The required amount of work associated with the construction of the bath box depends on how lucky you are with the soil on the site. Since most of the owners plan to build a bathhouse near the main household, the foundation and the box should not create problems, first of all, with the drainage of groundwater on the site.
The approximate amount of preparatory work is as follows:
- Marking is carried out at the site of the foundation, the direction of the water flow is determined;
- The fertile soil layer is removed and removed, the foundation and the bath box itself can be built only on the sole with a depth of at least 30 cm, everything that is higher will need to be removed and removed;
- If the relief of the site is flat, and there are no natural conditions for water flow, then drainage will need to be done. The project of such a system can be copied from home.
Important! It is extremely important to build a drainage system, as baths have always been a source of water. Upon completion of construction, after the foundation has shrunk, the soil will sink, and a puddle of rain water will form around the bath.
Foundation project with a "patch" for the steam room
The final stage of preparation is the filling of a sand-crushed stone cushion under the slab for installing the furnace. It will be necessary to build the foundation for the furnace in advance and strictly according to the project.
We talked about the organization of the strip prefabricated foundation above. Now let's talk a little more about other options.
To organize a columnar foundation, you will need a mechanized hand drill with a diameter of 152 mm and a length of the working part of the order of 1500 mm. The drilled holes are cased with a plastic sewer pipe with a diameter of 110-120 mm and reinforced with two reinforcement rods with a diameter of 20-25 mm.
A strip monolithic foundation is organized on a compacted sole of a sand-crushed stone mixture and must have geometric dimensions: width 350 mm, depth 450-500 mm. The bearing capacity of such a monolith for structures of this type will be sufficient on the bulk of the underlying soils.
Reinforcement is made with a horizontal reinforcing bunch from below and from above from a rod with a diameter of 16-18 mm and a vertical one from a rod with a diameter of 20 mm, installed at a distance of about 1000 mm from one another. The monolith is poured in one go and matures for 21 days.
Important! When arranging the base, before pouring it, it is necessary to organize technological channels and holes so that in the future they do not pass through the monolith using a perforator, a jackhammer and obscene language.
The foundation must be waterproofed using the conventional method, using roofing felt and bitumen mastic.
Strip foundation for a small bath
In the case when a really small bath is planned, there is no point in sinking the foundation to the level of soil freezing. This will only increase the overall cost of the project. With proper manufacturing and waterproofing, you will not have to worry about the walls being cold. This type of foundation will be relevant for any of the listed building options.
- The first thing that needs to be done is to clearly define the territory that will be allocated for construction.
- Next, debris is cleaned. In addition, you will need to remove the top layer of soil with grass to make it easier for yourself to carry out further tasks.
- With the help of pegs, the boundaries of the future building are marked.
- Special holders are made to make it easier to navigate with excavation. To do this, two pieces of board 50 × 50 cm (or whatever will be at hand) are sharpened on one side and connected using a transverse crossbar from a board 10 cm wide, its length should be about 70 cm. Such structures will need 8 pieces. They are installed in two at each corner of the house. Between them, two fishing lines are stretched to the width of the future foundation. It is imperative to check the compliance of all angles with a value of 90 °. In this way, well-defined lines are obtained that will be difficult to move, even by touching them.
- Scheme of a shallow strip foundation. The soil is excavated to a depth of 50‒60 cm. You can throw it in the middle of the territory, then it will be useful for preparing the bedding.
- A layer of sand is laid on the bottom. Its height should be 10‒15 cm. In order to compact it well, you will need a manual or mechanical rammer. Additionally, you can moisten it well with water to make it sit better.
- A moisture-resistant brick or something else (granite, for example) is laid on the bottom every meter, which will serve as a support for the metal crate. They are needed so that the concrete fills well the space under it.
- A crate is made from a rod with a diameter of 12 mm. Its principle is as follows. Sections are taken 10 cm shorter than each side of the dug trench. On each side you need 4 of them. Every 40 cm, they are connected to each other using a knitting wire so that a large parallelepiped is obtained. The entire structure is placed on prepared stands. All four elements are interconnected by a ligature of rods, so that, in the end, a monolithic structure is obtained.
- Formwork is made from flat boards or film faced plywood. Its height should be such that the foundation rises 30‒40 cm above ground level. It is important to make a sufficient number of supports so that the formwork does not begin to creep under the weight of the concrete. Also, in the upper part, individual sheets can be fastened together with crossbars.
- In a concrete mixer or manually, a solution is prepared in a ratio of 1: 3: 3. The first number is cement, the other two are sand and filler, usually crushed stone plays its role. For greater rigidity, the solution should not turn out to be very liquid.
- The time between kneading should be as short as possible, so that subsequently the layers become a single whole and do not peel off.
- After filling, you need to walk well with the vibrator. If you don't have your own, then you need to rent one. Thanks to him, high-quality filling of all voids is carried out, the presence of which reduces strength and can have unpleasant consequences.
- The top layer is leveled and tightened with the rule.
- After a few days, when the consistency has hardened enough, the formwork can be dismantled. But the foundation will gain full strength only after 28 days. The first few days (or more if this is summer) it must be watered with water so that it does not crack.
At the stage of laying the foundation, the supply of the necessary communications is provided. This can be a water supply system and a sewer drain for water from a washing room.
Sewerage in strip foundation
Note! If it is known that soils in your area are highly mobile, then an unburied foundation would be a bad option, because it can easily collapse under the pressure of layers. In this case, it is better to assess the possibility of installing piles.
Cross-section of the foundation on screw piles
There are several ways to build a foundation. Piles can be bored and driven. In the first case, a well is drilled, the formwork is made, the reinforcement rods are lowered and the entire space is poured with concrete. In the second version, ready-made concrete, wooden or metal posts with a pointed end are hammered immediately. The most suitable options for a small bath will be screw. They consist of a metal base in the form of a pipe and blades, which facilitate the immersion of the supports into the ground. They can be purchased or made by yourself. If you chose the second option, then you need to act like this:
- The first step is to find out to what depth the soil freezes. To do this, you can contact the appropriate service.
- Pipe blanks with a diameter of 110 mm are purchased. Its wall thickness must be more than 3 mm. The total length should be such that it can be drowned 50 cm below the freezing level and at the same time that it is 30-40 cm above the ground surface. Additionally, you can buy blanks for screws. It is also necessary to make a square hat on the pile. It should be 25x25 cm in size and 5‒6 mm thick.
- Screw pile making process. If blanks for the augers were not purchased, then they can be made from metal 5 - 6 mm thick. To do this, you need a sheet with a size of 30 × 30 cm. A circle is cut out of it. A hole is made inside the pipe diameter. After that, it is cut up to half and the parts are bent to form the blades.
- The end of the pipe, which will sink into the ground, is sharpened. For this, several vertical cuts of 15‒20 cm are made in the form of triangles. After that, they are folded inward and boiled.
- The auger is brewed.
- Additionally, in the upper part, you can provide holes for the lever, with which they will be screwed into the ground.
- All piles are primed with paint and coated with an anti-corrosion compound. This will extend their lifespan.
- The distance at which it is better to place the elements together is 1 m. Additionally, it is necessary to provide for the presence of supports for the partitions of the building.
- Installation of a pile foundation. In order for the piles to enter the ground exactly vertically, you can tape them on them or attach a level with a magnetic base. It is important that someone constantly monitors the value of the bubble so that any adjustments can be made in time.
- After all components are immersed, they must be aligned in a horizontal plane. For this, one standard is selected, which has the smallest overhang. A mark is made on it. Using a laser level, rules with a level or using a water level, these marks are transferred to all other elements. Next, trimming is done with a grinder.
- Holes are drilled in the caps so that later it will be easier to fix the grillage. It can be made from beams measuring 20 × 20 cm (you can also use logs 15 × 15 cm, 10 × 15 cm or 10 × 10 cm), or by pouring jumpers. In the first option, it is imperative to provide a dressing. To do this, in the logs that will be located perpendicularly at the edges, a sample is made at half the depth and for a width equal to the width of the log. After that, they are fastened together with hex head screws ("wood grouses"). For a concrete base, a trench is dug between the piles to a depth of 20 cm, a sand bed is made, which is rammed. After that, the formwork is exposed, the crate is laid and the solution is poured.
In each of the options described, separate support elements for the stove should also be provided, especially if the use of a heater is planned. This is very important, because its weight can be large, which can lead to damage to the floor and log.
Note! Such a foundation will be an ideal solution for frame structures, log structures, as well as small foam block baths. If the soil in the area where construction is planned is sufficiently strong and stony, then something in between a pile and strip foundation can be used - columnar. In this case, separate holes with a size of 50 × 50 cm are dug out every meter to a level below the freezing of the soil. Formwork, metal crate is installed inside and mortar is poured.
Column foundation in section
Supply of communications
In order for the bath to be used normally, first of all, it is necessary to provide for the presence of sewer pipes and a water supply. All other communications, including electricity or gas, are supplied "by air". Therefore, before building a brick basement for a bath, pipes are laid in its wall, through which water supply and sewerage will be brought in in the future.
If this is not done, then after the walls have been erected, you will need to drill holes in the base with special carbide ring drills. The technology is quite mature, but it requires certain costs and equipment.
Water recovery system
It is equipped according to the most simplified scheme and in the absence of a central sewerage system, the discharge is carried out into a cesspool with a drainage substrate made of broken bricks and stone fines.
The walls of the cesspool can be used cargo tires of dimensions 315 × 80 × 22.5 or 385 × 80 × 22.5 as the most common. Such material can be obtained free of charge at the nearest truck tire fitting. The volume of the cesspool should be at least 5 cubic meters and its location should not cause difficulties with pumping out water from a sewage tanker.
Since the arrangement of a cesspool is a rather troublesome task, we present a table of water filtration rate in various types of soil. It will help you have an idea of the minimum volume you need:
Bedded rocks at the site Filtration coefficient, m day
|Pebble clean||200 and more|
|Gravel with sand||150-175|
|Medium decomposed peat||0.15-1|
|Medium sandy loam||0.2-0.7|
|Clay||0.005 and less|
As already mentioned above, the bath room can be erected from mineral non-combustible building materials in the traditional way, from a log, subject to its availability and in a frame method. Let us dwell on the latter in more detail.
The strength elements of the frame made of wooden beams are pretreated with an antiseptic and dried. The frame is tied to the foundation and subsequently assembled on high-strength hardware using thrust washers. The space in the frame skeleton is filled with mineral wool with the use of measures for sufficient vapor and moisture insulation. The most affordable material is mineral wool.
It is easy to model the configuration of the interior on the frame, for example, to organize a dressing room by tying a partition made from a bar of a smaller section into the power skeleton.
Creation of partitions in the bath
After assembling the main box, it often becomes necessary to re-plan the interior, build additional partitions, separate part of the space for household purposes, storage of firewood and inventory.
According to the project, up to 80% of the surface of the walls of the bath is sewn up from the lining
Capital partitions inside the bathhouse are placed in the process of erecting walls, all the rest are made in a frame method, for example, in a log bath they are sewn from wooden slats or the remains of a bar. For foam block buildings, a partition can be built from a profile and drywall sheets. This is not unusual, a foam block box, as a rule, does not shrink, so there is no threat of destruction of additional partitions.
Doors and windows
It is preferable to choose wooden windows and doors. When installing them, it is important to carefully seal all the cracks in order to avoid heat loss.
It is not worth choosing plastic, as it quickly deteriorates under the influence of high temperatures.
Sometimes the doors are made of glass.
Creating a bath roof
The humid atmosphere inside the bath requires special measures to protect the ceiling. The ceiling has to be made double, in the form of a sandwich. In the lower part of the ceiling, with a sewn-on cladding, a layer of reflective thermal insulation is laid and air vents are made, thanks to which it is possible to ventilate the room and remove condensate accumulated after bath procedures.
The structure of the roof of a bath can most often be single-pitched or gable, usually not insulated, with a cold attic. The main part of the thermal insulation is laid directly on the floor, therefore the rafters and roof lathing are protected only by waterproofing and roofing. Moreover, the gables of the roof are made with enlarged ventilation windows in order to improve the removal of water vapor accumulating in the under-roof space.
It is better to build the overlap and roof with backfill insulation.
For large bath boxes, according to the project, the roof is often placed according to a four-slope scheme, thus it is possible to reduce the pressure on the walls and reduce heat loss due to improved wind flow.
It is recruited according to generally accepted technology. Rafters, in order to save money, can be slightly burned or treated with a fusa based on vegetable oil production waste. In the roof, as it is assembled, it is necessary to surround the chimney opening from a metal corner and a sheet of stainless steel, as it is more resistant to both high temperatures and in relation to atmospheric precipitation.
Sealing can be done with special heat-resistant roofing mastic. Cover the roof using asbestos-cement 8-wave slate. Over time, to improve the overall appearance of the bath, slate can be painted with a special roofing paint.
First of all, the soil must be isolated from the bath room, otherwise moisture and water vapor will penetrate and destroy wooden structures. The earthen foundation is covered with sand, laid with an insulating film, after which it is possible to solve the question of how to build insulation and drainage of water into the sewer.
The easiest way is to lay a layer of expanded polystyrene sheet with a thickness of at least 100 mm. Waterproofing is laid on top of the insulation and a concrete screed is made. This is the so-called subfloor, through which the dirty water will be discharged into the sewer intake manifold. Wooden logs are laid on top of the subfloor and the final floor is laid. Traditional planks are laid out with a gap between the floorboards in order to provide ventilation and moisture removal from the underground.
The walls inside the bathhouse require an obligatory device for additional thermal insulation and vapor barrier. It is necessary to insulate both foam block and timber structures, regardless of the thickness of the walls. In addition, it will be necessary to build a ventilation gap between the outer wall and the insulation layer, otherwise the condensate that falls out will quickly lead to the destruction of the timber or foam blocks.
The inner surface of the walls of the steam room and the rest room must be finished with linden, aspen or cedar clapboard. Often, the project of a steam room is selected in such a way that the consumption of a rather expensive lining is minimal. It is necessary to build the decoration of the shower room, dressing room and auxiliary premises from conifers. In modern projects, this part of the cladding is usually made of waterproof MDF boards.
The decoration of the premises plays an important role. Wall insulation will help to ensure good heat retention. For this, mineral wool or foam is often used.
Insulation of internal walls and ceiling is carried out in the following sequence:
- fix the waterproofing layer;
- fasten a wooden crate;
- fix the vapor barrier and mineral wool;
- finish the surfaces using lining.
The outer surface is painted, revetted with bricks or boards.
Installing the oven and shelves
There are a great many options for placing shelves, you just need to comply with the recommended sizes and the fact that they should be made of hardwood. The installation principle is simple - a stable frame is mounted, usually from a bar, and boards are attached to it.
The oven must be installed in full compliance with fire safety requirements. Wooden structures must be insulated from the high temperatures of the operating stove and chimney. In the case of a large furnace weight, its installation must be carried out on a specially equipped foundation. This is determined on a case-by-case basis, depending on the selected oven.
The stove is chosen according to the preferences of the owner. It can be a traditional wood-burning stove, a metal wood-burning stove or an electric stove, sometimes it is advisable to choose a gas stove for a bath.
In addition to the stove, a full-fledged washing room and a dressing room should be equipped in the design of the bathhouse, so you have to purchase at least a shower cabin, plumbing fixtures for the toilet and a boiler or heating tank to obtain hot water.
Most connoisseurs of hot steam prefer to build and equip a full-fledged recreation room with furniture, a sofa, room heating, and, most importantly, effective ventilation.
Oddly enough, but a long stay in a relatively small room with heated air and a large amount of water vapor is possible only with a normal supply of fresh air. Therefore, in any project, it is very important to provide and build a full-fledged forced ventilation, and not rely on simple ventilation of the room with the help of windows, vents and vents.
What could be better than a village bath? Nothing can replace relaxation and wellness procedures in a wooden, natural bath - neither a bath nor a warm shower. If it is not possible to build a large complex with pools and spas, then you can completely build a good, solid bathhouse on your site with your own hands. This requires a minimum investment. More important is the accurate calculation and the availability of appropriate, quite economical materials.
Use the recommendations of the masters who will help you build a bath with your own hands. With this step-by-step instruction, you can avoid common mistakes, save building materials, time and effort on construction.
Choice of materials
The first question a builder faces is which is better to take, stone, brick or wood? In this case, we are considering a variant of a wooden bath, which can be built in two ways - frame or log house.
Since ancient times, wood has been used as a material for sauna buildings. Benefits:
- environmental Safety;
- simple processing;
- the presence of useful essential resins that have a good effect on human health;
- durability with proper care.
Wood cannot be called an ideal material, as there are many difficulties. For example, it is not easy to ensure that the walls are even; only high quality timber, logs with precise sawing are suitable for this.
There is also a shrinkage factor - the tree dries up and deforms, so it is important to dry the wood in order to reduce the percentage of shrinkage before the finished log house “goes” to the wrong place.
Most often, hardwoods are taken for construction, the linden bath is especially good. Linden weighs little, allows you to make savings on the foundation. There are options from poplar, birch, pine.
We save on construction
Masters advise using a lightweight bath project. It can be strip construction - monolithic, prefabricated.
You can also significantly reduce the cost of warming the bath and its design. If you plan to use the sauna only in the warm season, then you do not need to seriously insulate it.
You can also refuse a vapor barrier, wind insulation, battens, facade decor. Gradually, as free funds appear, you can tackle these moments, but at first they are definitely not needed.
Do not worry about the aesthetics of the bath - it is enough to grind, cover the facade with a special impregnation and varnish, after that the building will look very nice and pretty. Such simple wooden baths fit perfectly into the landscape and the view of the site. You can verify this by looking at the photo of the bath with your own hands.
You also don't have to do a real, serious sewage system or plumbing, especially if there is a river, well, or stream nearby. The floor was often made pouring - this is a Russian tradition, water was simply carried in buckets. Despite some drawbacks, this does not spoil the bath.
What you shouldn't save on
What is not worth saving money? Do-it-yourself baths are cheap - this is important, but it is worth remembering that wood is a combustible material, if you do not overlook it in time, the structure can burst into flames. Do not skimp on the construction and installation of chimneys and pipes, remember the fire safety rules. Invest in fire impregnation, biosecurity - from pests and woodworms. You will also need insulating materials to protect the floorboards in front of the stove and for walls that will overheat.
Also, do not be too greedy for fasteners. The lower the quality of the hardware, the faster they will fail and rust in humid conditions. For good brands, the price is not so high, but there will be more benefits. If the fasteners corrode, they will give ugly streaks, and construction elements may collapse due to a decrease in the strength of all nodes and joints.
Don't forget about proper ventilation. Even small baths in the country house with their own hands of 4-6 meters need to be ventilated so that people do not suffocate. And this will help not to breed mold, rotting floors and walls.
It is important that the performer understands the instruments; this will require physical strength, endurance and accuracy.
We'll have to cut down various floors, locks for corner places - joining walls, external or internal. You can purchase a ready-made log house - it will be delivered to the site and installed immediately. But it will be more expensive due to transport costs, it is not relevant if we are talking about budget construction of a bathhouse with our own hands, cheaply and quickly.
The best way to work on a building in pairs is to call a relative or friend for help. It is difficult to lay crowns alone, especially on the upper tier.
Check the prices of wood in the market and in local warehouses, from suppliers from sawmills. This will allow you to calculate all the costs of building a bathhouse from boards with your own hands. Main settings:
- breed of lumber;
- section type;
- diameter in cm;
- price per cubic meter.
Nowadays, profiled beams made of pine, larch, spruce, round timber, carriage are often offered. Prices range from 8 thousand to 18 thousand rubles. If you compare the prices for used and new lumber, then you will definitely not be able to save money with a new timber.
It is reasonable to pay attention to cheap used material, which costs from 1000 rubles. per cubic meter or 80 p. by the piece. Even old pallets can be useful if used wisely.
Bath made of bricks
Especially durable, albeit more expensive, will be the creation of a bath with your own hands from a brick or foam block. They do not suffer from being afraid of fire, the brick allows you to build a bath of any shape - it all depends on taste and desire. The range of bricks is now very wide, colors, shapes, brands do not limit builders in any way.
Features of a brick bath:
- warms up longer, but cools down immediately;
- a brick wall definitely needs decorative finishing
- the window can be made of glass blocks that transmit light perfectly, but a ventilation system is required;
- a solution of cement and sand is required, water and mixing in a certain proportion, ordering a ready-made mixture or preparing yourself - always a cost and time expense.
You can buy projects of different types of bricks for the construction of a bathhouse with your own hands - they take fireclay or ordinary. You will also need sand, crushed stone and cement. The cost of the work can be calculated very simply.
If laying is done in one layer of brick (25 cm - wall thickness), then a table with data on the cost and size of bricks from manufacturers is used. It is important to consider the presence of mortar joints.
For 1 sq. m of brickwork, 102 ordinary bricks will be required. 1 piece costs 6.2 rubles. Accordingly, the price of 1 square meter is 632 rubles.
The purchase of bricks should be made taking into account possible rejects, with a margin of about 15%. Masonry costs should also include the cost of the finished mortar. How to make a bath with your own hands quickly? Concrete mixer, bricklayer services, special tools, joining are involved.
Bath from foam blocks
An alternative to wood and brick is foam or gas blocks. Today they are becoming more and more popular with everyone who builds a bath with their own hands. Their main advantage is the speed of building the building. Cons - like bricks.
The laying process goes along with the reinforcement of all rows. The blocks are fixed with glue or cement mortar.
Most often, they take blocks of 200x300x600 mm, the price of 1 piece is from 95 rubles. For internal walls, partitions, smaller and thinner blocks are used - 100-120 mm, only 50 rubles each. Calculating the number of blocks is easy. If the wall thickness near the bath is 20 cm, then 1 sq. m you need 5.5 blocks of 95 rubles. This gives an amount of 540 rubles. If the wall thickness is 30 cm, then more blocks will be needed - 8.33 pcs. Expenses for 1 sq. m will amount to 790 rubles. It can be concluded that block construction is more economical than brick construction.
But do not forget about the cost of glue for such blocks, about 1.5 kg will be required per 1 square meter. Also, blocks need to be bought with a margin.
Construction by stages
So, the materials have been purchased, you have to build a bathhouse with your own hands - step-by-step instructions will help you quickly plan all the work.
Construction processes are carried out in stages:
- Foundation laying.
- Installation of a roof and frame.
- Caulking a log house.
- Wood processing, polishing.
- Veranda flooring.
- Furnace arrangement.
Let's consider in detail each of these stages, which will help you build a cheap bathhouse yourself:
Choose flat areas with a low slope, 20 cm. A 6 m section is quite suitable, make markings, cut the soil to avoid organic decay. If the soil is sandy, then it is worth choosing a tape facade, with a height of 50 cm and a width of 40 cm.
Make the markings with a rope around the perimeters. Check the diagonals of the corners with a tolerance of 3-4 cm. Remove the natural soil layer and dig a sand trench. The finished pit has a length of 20 cm, the maximum height level is 40 cm.
In the center of the convergence of the logs is the axis of building a bath with your own hands. If the diameter of the log is about 20 cm, then the distance from the axis will be about 15-20 cm. This is how the shelves for securing the ebb tides are obtained. The calculation will allow you to avoid mistakes and the collapse of the foundation outward.
Construction begins with sand laying. The sand is moistened, tamped, sludge water is shed, when the moisture is saturated, tamping is started. Do this three to four times until the shoe marks disappear.
You should come back here the next day and tamp again. A car may come in handy, it will speed up the work. The simplest option is a block, your boots and a handle.
Then the formwork is installed from the edged board (from the fence) and self-tapping screws. They make shields and connect them together for rigidity with attached boards. The top is leveled to make an edge alignment horizon. When fixing with boards, it is important to strengthen the corners that are under heavy stress and diverge. The pillow is tamped again.
Then they make reinforcement - rods of 8 mm and soft wire for the strapping. It is especially important to tie the corners of the fittings. Then the foundation is poured, after having completed the laying of sewer pipes and ventilation ducts. The formwork is removed after 10 days by unscrewing the screws.
The finished structure looks like this: 2x6 m - for the veranda, 4x4 m - for the dressing room, 2x2 m - the place for washing, 2x2 - the steam room. Ventilation should be 20 cm from the soil; in winter, the holes should be closed with plugs.
Log cabin and roof
For a log house, you need elastic, wet moss, "cuckoo flax", sphagnum - about 25 bags, if it is a 6x4 m veranda.
Waterproofing is done with roofing felt, with the laying of moss over logs, up to 3 cm thick. The tree should not be felt under the moss. On the veranda, moss is not needed, here uniformity is not so necessary. After that, the manufacture of rafters from boards of 50x150 mm begins. The rafters are covered with a vapor barrier and a counter-lattice of 20x50 mm slats.
You can make a crate for metal tiles, then less rainwater will fall on the tree. For the veranda, lifts are installed to reduce shrinkage under the retaining posts.
Gables are made of tongue-and-groove boards and nailed up with a tip. Before sewing, a galvanized ebb is placed. All irregularities are treated with mastic, polished, impregnated and glazed.
Then, on the pediment, doors and a window for ventilation are made on top, with a radiator grill and with a plastic corrugation. Electricity is supplied in corrugation and through a metal cable with a 4 mm braid.
This is the easiest stage, but quite tedious and requires patience. We take a mallet, a caulking tool - made of iron and wood, we hammer the moss into the groove with a trowel and eliminate the risk of a draft in the bath.
The rollers should be tight so that the force of the tree is not felt when struck with a caulk. Particular attention is paid to the corners so that cold air does not pass.
Then we prepare the frame for painting. The log will be processed everywhere, from the end it is necessary - this is the most loose area that can provoke damage to the log.
They start with the simplest and smallest wall. It is worth tinkering with the corners, there the circle of the grinder does not reach everywhere, you will have to work with a chisel. The ends are processed at the end, they are sealed with mastic. It is convenient to take white, it will be easier to paint on it. Grinding allows you to show the beautiful structure of the wood, natural pattern.
Base drying - 1 day, then glaze is applied. After that, it is good to walk over the surface with a zero sandpaper. Then paint is applied in layers, the first one is dried for half a day, but it is better to keep it for a day, then a new layer, which gives a matte shine.
Laying the floors on the veranda
It is important to preserve the plank floor. Between the lags - a step of 1000 mm, you can strengthen the construct and make a step of 600 mm.
If the veranda is 2x6 m, then 16 boards of 6 m each will be required, taking into account the log and the stock of 1 board. If the boards have blue, mold, they can be cleaned with sanding and bleach. With traces of woodworms, you can seal the holes with mastic.
A vapor-permeable film from plant germination is laid on the ground inside the foundation. The boards are marked and sawn, numbered according to their location, the logs are treated with an antiseptic for conservation. Pile is removed from the boards, sanded with a machine, chamfered from the edges. A high-quality floor surface is achieved by sanding the soap-based composition.
Boards are placed on logs with a gap of 44 mm. A nail can be placed between the boards for precision. Self-tapping screws can burst during overload, it is better to take screw nails, their caps are covered with mastic. The boards are processed during installation.
For coating, it is good to take oil and glazing compounds for open areas of houses. They allow you to save on renovation and walk barefoot around the veranda. First, the base is applied and dried for 24 hours, then the second layer is also dried for 24 hours. The final coating is glaze. Gloss can be applied for more aesthetics.
A good stove eliminates the issue of fuel and helps maintain the temperature for almost three days, which dries the bath thoroughly. And hot water will boil in a separate remote tank, not in a steam room.
For example, you can choose an oven with an attached heat exchanger. This design is suitable for brick lining, which will serve as a screen. The stove is preheated on the street in order to burn through the paint and eliminate the smell in the bath.
A meter-long pipe is installed for traction, this is enough, but there may be a little soot. Since the stove foundation is connected to the bathhouse, reinforcement is made during pouring.
The masonry is made with cement to protect the waterproofing, a double roofing material is laid, a brick is laid on it. The stove is raised from the foundation 20 cm above the floor. The sand is moistened and compacted from subsidence.
Take a brick, an oven mixture, dry the mixture and mix in water. The upper rows are sealed with a solution. Hang in the convection doors immediately so that they draw air correctly from the dressing room to the steam room.
It is important to carefully bring the stove into the room (a couple of people will be required), installation in the exact location A T-shaped layering is placed on top to mount a pipe, which will also stand on the foundation.
Finish the masonry before creating the pipe on the roof. It will be functional as the T-segment enters. Inside the steam room, two more convector doors are placed on the desired side.
Next, the heat exchanger is hung from the corners, squeegees, couplings, attached to the furnace, wrapping the thread with linen soaked in sealant. The masonry is made up to the top of the firebox, a corner with an overlap is placed on the bricks and a gap of 2 cm is left. The front version is almost ready, the contact of the masonry with the stove should be minimal.
Then we close the entire exchanger with bricks, put pipes to the tank. The holes are covered with steel discs. In the washing room, laying is done up to the ceiling. Finishing facade work, making a mantel to redirect hot air.
The last step is to make pipe connections to the tank. Prepare the roof to insert the pipe, drill the ceiling with a 1 cm margin, lead the pipe and lay the masonry at the top. Clean the pipe and cover it with a protective varnish three times. Cover the space around the pipe with insulating material.
Now you know how to properly build a bath with your own hands. Calculate all the options, check the availability of materials in the store, make your dream bathhouse for modest money. Also look at the options for a bath with your own hands photo projects - they will inspire you to work.
Do-it-yourself bath photo
Bath - what's the point in this word! The aroma of brooms, hot steam, cold water in the tub, the attractive coolness of the dressing room at the dacha ... All this was respected not only by our ancestors who lived in past centuries, but we continue to appreciate it as well - modern society. Even now there is an army of amateurs and connoisseurs to take a good steam and cleanse not only their body, but also their soul.
How to build a bath with your own hands? How to make a foundation, lay a floor, erect walls and install a roof? This article will be devoted to this topic.
Where to build a bathhouse on the site? Before the start of construction work, this question arises. The choice of location will depend on many factors, because it is he who will affect not only the course of construction, but also the subsequent use of the building.Experts recommend choosing an area located near the reservoir. However, it should not be flooded during the autumn and spring floods.
If the question arises, at what distance to build a bath from the house, then it is best to build it as far as possible from the buildings. This will keep them safe in the event of a fire.
Bath windows should face west or slightly south. The entrance doors are best placed on the south side. This will allow you to avoid the accumulation of a large amount of snow near it in winter. When choosing a place for construction, it is required to take into account the need to conduct electricity to the bath.
How to start building a bath? This is a frequently asked question. After choosing a place, it is worth preparing an estimate. This will allow you to calculate where you can save money so that construction is cheap.
How much does it cost to build a bathhouse? Before starting construction, you need to calculate an estimate. This is required in order to more easily calculate the forthcoming expenses. To do this, you need to make a list of works:
Creation of a planning bath project. In this case, you cannot do without the services of an architect. He will independently make and prepare all the drawings in accordance with the client's conditions. A typical project of a 6 m by 6 m bathhouse will cost 8.000 rubles.
Foundation. The cost of the materials required will depend on the point of purchase.
Walls and roofing. To do this, you will need to buy a roof covering.
Communications. These include the supply of electricity and water. This is one of the most important works during construction.
Carrying out finishing works.
In addition, funds will be needed to heat the bath and its thermal insulation.
Of course, the preparation of the estimate and the cost of construction will not show the exact costs, since the prices of the materials used differ.Undoubtedly, self-construction will cost much less in cost than professional ( specialized companies require at least $ 20,000 for the construction of a bath ).
The choice of material for construction
Before the construction, a lot of questions appear, the main ones being the choice of material for the bath. Experts recommend using one of the options below:
- Profiled timber. Today it is a popular material, because it has a lot of advantages. These include low thermal conductivity, attractive appearance and neat clear lines. When choosing a profiled beam as the main material for construction, you will need to wait a certain period of time for the structure to shrink and properly dig the log house.
- Glued laminated timber. This material is great for building a bath. It includes many advantages: a flat surface, no need for finishing work, no shrinkage is required, so a glued beam bath can be used immediately after construction is completed. The walls retain heat well, the material does not rot, it does not lend itself to rodents or chemicals. This is an expensive material, but it will quickly justify its qualities.
- Sauna from planed timber also popular. It is an excellent material that combines warmth and sound insulating qualities.
- Logs. The chopped structure, of course, has its own subtleties of construction. They must be followed exactly. Such nuances of wood construction include the need to maintain the straightness of the fibers. Curved wood fibers are a sure sign of poor quality wood, which will make your building last a little shorter. At the end of the construction, the slots and gaps must be drilled.
- Rounded log. Baths made of rounded logs always look attractive. They are durable and reliable. The disadvantage is the need to wait about one year for the structure to shrink. Only at the end of this period can you do other work: decorate the bathhouse, conduct electricity, etc. For how to build a bath from a rounded log with your own hands, see here .
- Frame. The frame bath is lightweight. This is a great way to save on foundation. Another advantage is the duration of the work. Frame baths are quick and easy to build. A well-built structure will perfectly retain heat.
- Brick. Some people prefer to build a brick bath. This is more modern material. The choice can be easily explained as it is durable and not flammable.
- Bath from cinder blocks is the most inexpensive construction option. However, its construction is carried out as soon as possible.
- Aerated concrete. The aerated concrete bath is durable, as this material perfectly resists moisture. Due to its low thermal conductivity, it is possible to retain heat inside the building for a long time. The constructed bathhouse from sleepers has the same advantages.
Features of the construction of a bath from timber and foam blocks
The construction of a bath from a bar has a number of characteristic features:
- No additional finishing required when using a glued type of timber. It can only be carried out at will.
- The timber is one of the convenient materials for construction, because before that no additional preparatory work is required.
- When using a bar there is no need to additionally insulate the building.
- It is a durable, attractive and environmentally friendly material.
Building a bath from foam blocks is another option. It certainly has distinctive features. It:
The weight of the finished structure is small therefore, the level of the load exerted on the foundation is low.
Due to the porous structure of the material, to build a bathhouse in a short period of time.
You can work with him without the use of additional special tools.
Stages of building a bath: foundation, walls, floor, roof.
The technology of building a bath provides for pouring the fundamental foundation. After calculating the estimate, choosing a place and consumables, you need to start this process.
A fundamental foundation is required for the existence of every structure. Many people have a question, how to fill it? It is filled in according to the weight of the building. The weight depends on the consumable used to build the walls.It is not recommended to save money on the foundation, because it is the basis of the bath and must be strong, reliable and strong.
Best of all, according to experts, fill strip foundation , because it is intended for clay and stone soils. The height of such a base is no more than 60 cm. When calculating the width and length of the foundation, it is not necessary to take into account the depth of groundwater.
How to make a foundation for a bath with your own hands? Foundation pouring instructions:
- First you need to prepare a construction site. Marking is an important stage and for its implementation you will need to use fragments of reinforcement along with a simple fishing line. The use of the latter device is due to its excellent qualities.
- The next step is the construction of the foundation pit. In the case of building a bath, you just need to dig a trench. To do this, it is necessary to determine the lowest point on the outside of the marking, then calculate the depth of the pit in accordance with it.
- Next, you need to lay a sand pillow. It is necessary to reduce the load on the base. Its top should be tamped together with the bottom of the trench. After that, it needs to be leveled. To speed up the work, it is recommended to pull the line at a level equal to the thickness of the future pillow. Next, you just need to fill up the sand before it and carefully tamp it using a special roller. The amount of sand required for a pit is equal to the product of the length, width and height of the trench.
- The next step is the edged board formwork. This structure is used to shape the concrete into the desired shape. It can be of two types: removable and non-removable ... The creation of formwork can be considered a laborious process during the construction of the foundation. The production of shields for it is carried out from edged boards. It has many advantages: smoothness, strength, acceptable cost ... The edged board has clear and specific parameters, so it is possible to control the height of the formwork. On the inside, the shields are fastened with nails, on the other hand, they are bent. The end parts of the shields must be assembled using self-tapping screws. This will allow the boards to fit snugly together.
- Reinforcement of the foundation. Thanks to the reinforcement, it is possible to achieve a qualitative change in the properties of concrete. As a result, a high indicator of its mechanical strength is achieved. The reinforcement plays the role of a kind of skeleton, its task is to make the foundation more durable. The reinforcement grille is required to be positioned at a distance of 5 cm from the base border. It is recommended to use a grid with a cross section of 12 mm. Its laying is carried out as follows: two rows of reinforcement on a brick.
- Another stage is foundation ventilation. It is required for every building. It is recommended to carry out ventilation using a plastic pipe with a diameter of 10 cm. During the pouring process, to prevent the mass of solutions from entering these gaps, it is best to hide them with sand.
- Pouring the foundation. If it is possible to order an automatic mixer for filling, which independently performs all the work, it is better to use such services. In other cases, the preparation of the solution is done by hand. For this it is recommended to use concrete of the following grades: M-200, 300 or 400. The choice will depend on the relevant weather conditions. The solution is prepared using crushed stone, cement and sand ... Their proportions are 3: 1: 3. Along with this, it is required to pour water until the required consistency is obtained. Pouring concrete is required gradually. In this case, it is necessary to monitor the absence of the formation of gaps. The previously installed reinforced mesh will help in this. From time to time, you need to tap on it, so the concrete will lay better.
One of the modern and budgetary options for creating a foundation for a bath is foundation on screw piles ... Read more about this type of foundation here.
The second stage is the construction of the walls. Crown wreath
The device of the bath and the quality condition of the log house will largely depend on the installation of the cap ( lower crown) ... At the same time, marriages or mistakes in work should not be allowed, because this will have an impact on the structure.
Laying the first crown on a strip foundation begins with choosing the best and thickest logs. They will be under a heavy load, so they have to cope with it. If it is possible to lay the first three crowns from a larch log, then you should use it.
Step-by-step instructions for laying the flange:
- First you need roll out the roll waterproofing in two layers.
- Further, on top of it, on opposite walls, it is required lay the monitors pretreated with bituminous mass. Their thickness should not exceed 6 cm. Logs are laid on top, and their root parts should be located on opposite sides.
- Next step - align both logs horizontally using wedges.
- After that it is necessary measure the largest gap between the boards. Next, add to this indicator a value equal to the radius of the log, and make the appropriate marks on the logs. At these levels, you need to hammer in nails.
- Further, the logs need remove from the foundation and turn over. After that, you need to fix them with staples and cut each log along the line of nails. At the end of the process, place the hewn logs back on the base and level them.
- The two transverse logs must also be adjusted. However, there is a difference - when calculating the edges, it is required to take not the radius of the log, but a quarter of its diameter.
- Initially, they must be laid opposite the butt of the other two logs. , and then set to the horizon, remove and trim.
- The last two logs need to be marked for corner cuts.
For the further construction of walls, you can use two methods:
- On dowels.
- Using wooden dowels.
The first option is a knot made up of a rectangular bar. Its essence is that the dowel is driven into the first crown, then the next log is laid, which has a groove. The groove and dowel are aligned, making the connection of the logs strong and reliable.
This method is practically not used today because of its laboriousness. Instead, a mounting option using wooden dowels is used.During work, do not forget about windows and doors. They must first be cut down. This will facilitate the process of work in the future and not waste time on this.
Erection of walls using wooden dowels
The logs should not roll out or change their own shape, so they are fastened together with special dowels. In addition to the function of maintaining the shape of the material, they make the connection stronger and more durable. The diameter of such a rod is no more than 30 mm.
One dowel is able to firmly connect three logs at the same time. Its length should be 20% less than the total depth of the drilled holes. The head can be made of oak or larch.
It is recommended that the dowel be fitted with an interference fit. Because of the gaps, the logs will begin to loosen, as a result of which the strength of the bath will decrease. This wooden rod should not interfere with the work, so its end is placed in the hole by 2–3 cm. Thanks to this, the frame will shrink freely.
The pins should be two meters apart. A clear symmetry must be maintained when drilling holes. The basic rule is that one crown should be fastened to the lower and upper crown. So it is required to connect the logs until the required wall height is reached.
We build a bathhouse with our own hands, and the next step is flooring. Bath floor device:
Do-it-yourself brick stove for a bath. - here is more useful information.
- On a concrete base, it is required to lay logs from an edged board. Their thickness should be about 5 cm. They need to be treated with a special antiseptic to repel water.
- Next, another layer of boards is laid on the logs. They are planed on each side except one. The distance between the laid boards should not exceed 5 mm. It will be needed to drain the water. All work must be done with great care so that no damage remains on the front side of the boards.
- Fastening the boards to the joists should be carried out using metal screws.
How to make a floor in a bath, video:
After finishing the flooring, it is required do a little surface sanding ... This completes the installation of floors in the bath.
The construction of a bathhouse includes the construction of a roof. This process must be carried out in accordance with the instructions below. So, how to build a roof on a bath?
You will be interested in this article - DIY sauna stoves.
- Installation of rafters on a bathhouse. They should not be longer than walls. The maximum possible protrusion behind them is half a meter. Otherwise, additional support will be required.
- It is necessary to mount wooden rafters of any shape on the upper crown. Next, they need to be secured using metal staples. The distance between the rafters must be at least one meter. At the very top of the roof, you need to cut the parts and connect them end-to-end.
- The next step is laying the cover. It could be wood, tiles, slate .
- And the last step is thermal insulation. To do this, you need to lay the insulation material between the rafters, and then place it on and under the rafters.
After building the roof, you need to decide on the ceiling. Several varieties can be used:
- The ceiling is hemmed with additional boards from the lower side. This will require the installation of insulating material to avoid steam penetration. On the modern construction market, you can find special products that can withstand high temperatures.
- A ceiling made by the decking method. Its installation is carried out directly under the roof. In this case, it is recommended to use foil or clay .
Recommendations and advice
To facilitate the construction process, it is recommended to adhere to several tips, because they can provide important assistance. These include:
- Before you start attaching a log or timber to the foundation, you need to lay a waterproofing layer.
- It is recommended to fix the corners in half a tree. This will allow them to be quickly replaced in case of decay.
- It is imperative to carry out the caulking of the log house.
- When building a roof, it is recommended to make the ridge as high as possible. This will protect the building from the wind.
- When laying the first crown, it is required to carefully apply the bitumen mass. It plays an important role, so the layer must be thick.
Finishing work. Conducting communications
The step-by-step construction of a bath with your own hands also includes finishing work. These include finishing of internal and external walls, if necessary, finishing of the floor. The final stage of work includes communications. This is the conduction of electricity and water.Much attention should be paid to the installation of the stove, because this requires observing a large number of fireproof norms and requirements.
On this, the construction of a bath with your own hands can be considered complete.
Decorating and building a bath with your own hands, video:
How to build a bath with your own hands
Construction of a bath in a suburban area - a popular solution for modern residents. The bathhouse is its own health resort, a source of strength and energy in the country.
The building is being built in several stages.
How to start building a bath on the site?
Construction of a bath at a summer cottage
occurs in several stages:
- Seat selection ... The minimum distance of the bath from other buildings should be at least five meters. Avoid uneven surfaces and make the entrance to the building from the south. In winter, there will be less snow near the door, and in spring it will melt faster. Therefore, it will be easier to enter the bathhouse.
- Create a plan ... Do it yourself or take a ready-made one on the Internet.
- Laying the foundation ... For the bath, a columnar or strip foundation is used.
- Reinforcement ... It is especially important in seismically active regions and where the structure is experiencing additional loads.
- Basement construction (optional) .
- Creating a blind area .
- Construction of a drain in the steam room .
- Walling .
- Roof construction .
The final chord is the internal arrangement of the bath for the aesthetic needs of specific people.
This step by step construction of a bath discussed in more detail below.
Step-by-step construction of a bath with your hands. Where to begin?
Let's analyze each item separately. Do-it-yourself bath construction in stages starts with choosing a place.
It is not recommended to build on a slope or unevenness. This creates additional hazards for the structure. If it is difficult to choose the right one, you can build on irregularities, but at the same time:
- Pre-level the surface .
- Carry out foundation reinforcement .
Attention: it is better to start building a bath in the warm season. In winter, it is extremely difficult to fill the foundation. Start building in the spring. Then the foundation will have time to infuse before frost.
Creation of a bath construction plan
Construction of a bath in a suburban area starts with creating a bath plan. If the builder has the necessary technical knowledge and skills, independent design is allowed.
Otherwise, it is better to take a ready-made plan on the Internet. This will save you time, effort, and sometimes money.
Choose a plan so that construction of a bathhouse at a summer cottage fully corresponded to desires. It is allowed to change the finished plan, but remember: by making changes, you take full responsibility for them.
Attention: Consider the needs of today and tomorrow when creating your plan. The number of family members may increase. Therefore, it is recommended to make the size of the structure slightly larger than required.
When the plan is ready, it's time to lay the foundation. This is exactly what where to start building a bath on the site after writing technical documentation.
Its depth is determined by the level of soil freezing, and its strength is determined by the weight of the building.
Sometimes the bathhouse is made two-story. In this case, on the second floor there is a recreation room, swimming pool or other halls. Two-story construction requires a stronger foundation, more consumption of building materials.
It is recommended to make a bath in the form of a one-story building with a dressing room and add additional rooms.
The foundation can be columnar and tape, while it is the tape that is stronger.
To lay it, you must:
- Add coarse sand a height of about 20 cm.
- Pour on top small stone or crushed stone. The height of this layer roughly corresponds to the previous one.
- Pour on top concrete in a ratio of 1: 3. it is the most suitable formulation for a given design.
If you lay the foundation correctly, further building a bath with your own hands in stages will be simpler. Otherwise, the master will have to redo the building from scratch. Therefore, it is recommended to take the laying of the foundation as seriously as possible.
Reinforcement of the foundation for a bath
Reinforcement of the foundation is another thing where to start building a bath on the site .
If the structure is being built in earthquake-prone regions, reinforcement must be done. In other cases, you can refuse it, but do it extremely Not recommended.
On almost any type of soil, a building subsides over time, and if the surface is clayey, the foundation may not withstand and its integrity will be violated. In this case, the reinforcement will give the foundation elasticity and protect it from sudden collapse.
You shouldn't skimp on this, because "the miser pays twice."
Reinforcement is usually done by inserting two to three metal rods and connecting with a piece of wire.
Do I need a basement for a bath on the site.
A plinth is an optional, but desirable element of the bath.
Is our bath building instructions written so that the master can take into account the basement during construction.
Instructions for the construction of a basement for a bath
Lay roofing material on top of the foundation in two or three layers, and then fill it with concrete. Be sure to make a hole for ventilation of the beams. If the master refuses the basement floor, holes are made directly in the foundation itself.
The next thing to do to find out how to build a bath with your own hands - blind area.
It is recommended to be made from clay, as it is more suitable than concrete. The material perfectly absorbs water and is suitable for waterproofing structures. The width of the blind area should be 120-150 cm, and small stone or crushed stone should be poured on top.
Drainage in the steam room is a necessary element of the future structure. It should be treated with increased attention, since the comfort of the steam room depends on a competent drain.
To do it you need:
- Dig a hole , one and a half meters deep, 200 cm wide.
- Fill walls with concrete and reinforce them.
- Close pit with boards and make a water seal.
- Concrete surface.
It is not recommended to erect walls until the foundation is established ... This usually takes several months, although some builders recommend waiting at least a year (1 winter).
When the foundation is established, the walls are laid. Recommended to be made of beams. Larch is especially useful - the material does not rot, it can withstand different temperatures.
The timber is laid out tightly around the entire perimeter. Holes are necessarily made into which the spikes are cut and insulation is placed between the bars. This is a special treatment of the timber, in which a groove is made on one side, a thorn on the other, after which the thorn is placed in the groove.
This is not the only way to lay timber, but it is recommended to use it when building a bath, since it takes the least time.
You can make walls from another material (for example, brick), but this is no longer the classic version of a summer cottage. In this case, the laying technology is the same.
If necessary, you can make windows in the steam room or do without them.
Attention: to make the walls look even more beautiful, they can be sheathed with clapboard.
It is best to make a roof using a rafter system. Create a frame from wooden beams, and then you can begin to warm the ceiling. The roof is also better made from larch or other similar types of wood.
READ MORE ABOUT ROOFING MATERIALS
Finally, the time has come for the internal arrangement of the bath. Install the oven in the room and point the pipe outside.
We hope the proposed material is interesting to the reader and you found out how to build a bath with your own hands .
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Storing firewood, do-it-yourself firebox
Unlike an apartment building, the owners of private suburban real estate heat independently. Depending on the available communications and opportunities, some heat their homes with a gas or electric boiler, others have stove heating in the old fashioned way. Briquettes, pellets or wood are usually used as fuel for the stove. When heating a home with firewood, you must have a special structure for storing firewood - a stand (firebox or woodpile). Also, fire boxes are necessary for those who have a fireplace or a bath.
The specifics of the construction and layout of the steam room
The steam room is the "hot" heart of the bath. Maintaining the desired comfort and temperature comes at a cost. Therefore, the efficiency of the steam room is one of the main conditions in the design of the structure.
Self-construction and arrangement of a bath in the country is a difficult, but quite feasible event. First of all, the owner must choose a suitable material for the construction of a bath.
Novice builders are advised to give preference to timber. This material has excellent performance properties and does not cause any particular problems and inconveniences in the process.
Choosing a place for the construction of a bath
Start by choosing a suitable location for your building. The following guidelines will help you with this:
General recommendations for planning a bath
Before starting any construction activities, prepare a bath project.
Determine the optimal size for the structure. One vacationer must have at least 5 m2 of the total area of the building. For example, if you are building a bathhouse for 4 people, its area should be at least 20 m2.
As a standard, the bath consists of a steam room, a washing section, a dressing room and a rest room. Set the dimensions that are convenient for you and the features of the spatial arrangement of the listed premises.
Prepare the following drawings:
You can make all these drawings yourself or find them in an open source. In general, the projects of log baths remain almost the same. If you have a desire and a sufficient budget, order the preparation of drawings by a professional.
Materials for building a bath
By the way, on our website you can read the story about the construction of a bath from A to Z in more detail in this article - https://stroyday.ru/istorii-polzovateley/kak-ya-stroil-karkasnuyu-banyu.html
To build a bath from a bar, you will need a whole set of different materials and devices, namely:
- timber. Traditionally, a material with a cross section of 150x150 mm is used;
- floor boards. The best option is a four-meter edged board 15x5 cm;
- boards for the ceiling. Usually, lining is used with a width of 10 cm and a thickness of 2 cm;
- materials for interior decoration. Lining is perfect;
- vapor barrier material. The best option is modern vapor barrier films;
- waterproofing material. Use penofol whenever possible. Plastic wrap is also suitable;
- insulation for the ceiling. Mineral wool materials are well suited;
- sheet asbestos. With its help, you insulate the wooden elements of the building from high temperatures. Insulation sheets should be fixed to the walls near the sauna stove. Also, wooden elements installed in the immediate vicinity of the chimney need insulation;
- bulk materials for the arrangement of the foundation. Standard set: cement, sand and gravel;
- material for finishing the roof. Focus on your preferences. The main thing is that the roof of the bath looks good surrounded by the roofs of other buildings on the site;
- insulation for mezhventsovoy space. Use jute. Tow and moss are also suitable.
The best time to start building a bathhouse is in the spring. after the completion of the main activities, the wood will need to be left for a six-month "wintering". During this time, the material will dry and give the required shrinkage.
Buy cement immediately before starting construction.
Bath Construction Guide
The work is carried out in stages - from the preparation of the construction site to equipping the bath with various accessories.
Stage One - Site Preparation
Clear the building site from all sorts of debris, shrubs, large roots and, in general, anything that can interfere with the construction of the foundation.
Second stage - pouring the foundation
The best option for the foundation for a log bath is a columnar support structure.
Prepare the required number of holes for the installation of supports. The pillars must be installed at the corners of the building, at the intersection of the walls, as well as along the perimeter.
The optimal pitch for installing the pillars is selected individually, depending on the type of soil on the site and the expected load on the supporting structure.
The recommended depth of the pits is 100-150 cm. The given values may vary depending on the depth of soil freezing in the area.
Fill the bottom of each pit with a 10-15 cm layer of sand and crushed stone.
Install an asbestos-cement pipe strictly vertically in each pit. Place reinforcement rods inside the pipes. Fill the pipes with reinforcement with concrete. Also fill the remaining free space around the pipes in the pits with concrete mortar.
Leave the pillars for a few days, and then lay a half-brick wall between them.
Stage Three - Walls and Roof
For the construction of walls, a bar of 150x150 mm is traditionally used. Place the first crown on a previously waterproofed foundation. Be sure to align it in all respects. The bars are most often placed according to the "in the paw" method.
Lay out the walls of the required height from the timber, not forgetting to leave openings for the further installation of doors and double-glazed windows. Use wooden pins to fasten the crowns. Be sure to insulate each crown with jute or other suitable material.
After bringing the walls of the bath under the roof, fix the rafters in accordance with the features of the selected roof configuration. Attach the rafters to the last crown with staples.
In the case of erecting a pitched roof, secure the rafters with two external or internal and external supports. When arranging a gable system, the lower ends of the rafters must be reliably supported on the walls. The upper ends of the elements are connected to each other, creating a roofing ridge.
Attach the sheathing boards to the rafters. Lay hydro-, heat- and vapor barrier materials, bath insulation is one of the most important elements of its construction, the quality of the built bath will directly depend on it. Fit the selected roof finish.
Prices for various types of timber
Fourth stage - Interior fittings
Start by arranging the necessary communications.
You must take care of the installation of the sewage system even at the stage of creating the foundation. To do this, outside the boundaries of the bath, create a pit or a drainage well connected to the bath with a pipe laid with a slope.
After completing the arrangement of the sewage system, make the floor. It can be concrete or wood. Concrete floors are usually tiled. This coating is more durable.
The wooden floor is traditionally made leaky. The technology is extremely simple: logs are installed, floor boards are nailed to them with a certain gap. You can also create a small drainage hatch and close it with a perforated grill. In this case, the floor should be made with some bias. As a result, moisture from the floor will enter the hatch, and from there it will be discharged through a pipe into a drainage well or sump.
To make the wood last as long as possible, thoroughly ventilate the bath after each visit.
Insulate the ceiling and walls of the building using suitable moisture, heat and vapor barrier materials. Install doors and glass units. Bring water and electricity to the bath. Install the necessary electrical appliances.
Prices for thermal insulation materials
Heat insulating materials
Stage 5 - Oven and Shelves
Select the design of the shelves at your discretion. They are built in the same order: first, a support frame from a strong bar is mounted, after which boards are nailed to the supports.
Also choose the stove at your discretion. You can lay out a traditional stove, install a convenient metal unit or a modern electric heater.
Heavy furnaces require the obligatory arrangement of an individual foundation. In this moment, everything is also determined in a separate order, taking into account the characteristics of a particular furnace.
Prices for various types of stones for stoves
Sixth step - Optional accessories
In conclusion, you will only have to add all sorts of accessories to your summer cottage bath, namely:
- a wooden mug for adding water;
- all kinds of wooden bars, etc.
The interior arrangement of the additional premises of the bath is at your discretion.
Prices for bath and sauna accessories
Bath and sauna accessories
Video - Bath in the country with their own hands
Building a bathhouse from a log house is not an easy task, however, the construction technology, the choice of materials and even the exact sequence of actions have long been known and worked out by many craftsmen. This material explains all the key points that will help in the construction of a log bath: from laying the foundation to interior decoration.
The steam bath has been known since the times of the Scythians, who carried with them special bath tents and camp stoves. And in the 21st century, the Russian bath did not become a kind of archaism, having successfully withstood the age-old competition with bathrooms and showers. Get rid of many ailments, remove from the body harmful substances accumulated in urban everyday life, give the body a good rest - all this is achieved when visiting a bathhouse for more than one and a half thousand years.
Which construction is preferable, how to choose a place for its placement, how it generally works - you will find answers to many "bath" questions in this article.
Place and layout of the bath
One of the important additions to the bath itself at all times was a reservoir with fresh water located nearby - in the absence of another source of water supply, water was taken from it. A special charm in the proximity of such a reservoir lies in the possibility of contrasting ablution - after steaming in a Russian bathhouse, run out of it and plunge into the cool water of the reservoir.
In addition, the natural reservoir made it possible to quickly cope with the fire of the bath, which occurred quite often due to violations in the construction of the furnace.
Today, there is no particular need to link a summer cottage bath to a natural reservoir, but it is still convenient if it is located near, say, an artificial reservoir - the final decision always remains with the owner of the summer cottage.
The main criteria for choosing a place for a bath: distance from the road, the presence of natural or artificial fencing from outside spectators (dense bushes, tree crowns, a fence, outbuildings), a fire distance from the main residential building of at least 15 meters.
The main premises of the bath are the dressing room, washing room and steam room (the last two rooms can be combined into one). The size of the dressing room is determined at the rate of 1.4 m 2for each bather, the size of the washroom is 1.2 m 2for one person. In addition, the dressing room should have a place for furniture (locker for clothes, bench for sitting) and storage of fuel (box for coal or firewood). The washing room will need a place for containers with hot and cold water, a stove and a place for sun beds.
For example, for a small family (no more than 4 people), a bath of the following sizes is suitable: external size - 4x4 m; dressing room - 1.5x2.4 m; washing room - 2x2 m; steam room - 2x1.5 m. True, in a bath of this size you can't really turn around - but it also takes up little space.
In general, the size of the bath is directly related to the size of the area that can be allocated for it. If the site is significant, then the bathhouse can be expanded by adding a shower cabin, recreation rooms, etc.
In temperate and cold climatic zones, it will be correct if the entrance to the bath is located in the south, and the window openings are on the west (southwest) side. This location of the entrance will greatly simplify the use of the bathhouse in the winter season, since the snowdrifts on the south side melt faster, and the direction of the windows will allow to illuminate its premises with sunlight for a longer time.
Bath construction - stages
There are several of them:
- Procurement of basic materials.
- Selection and laying of the foundation.
- Creation of the foundation for the stove (if necessary).
- Creation of the floor and sewerage system of the bath.
- Assembly of the bathhouse.
- Roof construction.
- Formation of a blind area along the perimeter.
- Caulking the walls of the bath.
- Masonry or installation of a stove, installation of a chimney.
- Bath electrics and water supply.
- Installation of doors and installation of shelves.
Preparation of basic materials for the bath
The classic and most successful construction material for a Russian bath was and will be wood - wood easily copes with waterlogging of bath rooms, taking excess moisture outside.
What wood is suitable for building a bath? As a rule, saunas are built from round timber of pine or spruce with a diameter of no more than 250 mm - only a tree will create an indescribable inner atmosphere in the steam room. However, in some places it is better to include wood of other species in the design of the bathhouse - oak, larch and linden. For example, bottom crowns and floor joists made of oak will allow you to get a truly durable bath. Nuance - the oak must be cut down "in the sap" (ie, not dead wood) and dried under a canopy. The lower crowns (no more than 4), following the first oak, are best made of larch. The final crowns, elements of interior decoration and cladding should be made of linden or white spruce - their wood removes moisture better than others.
When do you need to store wood for the construction of a bath? Round timber, wood for interior decoration must be cut down in winter, when the tree trunks contain the least amount of moisture, it is easier to dry. In addition, far from the entire tree trunk is suitable for building a bathhouse - only the middle part of the trunk will do, that is, the top and butt are not suitable.
An important criterion in the selection of wood will be the absence of cavities and streaks of resin on the round timber of conifers, dry, sanded surface, the absence of decayed areas and places of damage by the woodworm beetle.
The main types of foundations for the construction of baths are strip and columnar, depending on the local soil. Regardless of the type of foundation chosen, it is necessary to lay them with maximum accuracy - it is better if to the depth of soil freezing. Preliminary work before laying any type of foundation: cleaning the site from debris, completely removing the top soil layer to a depth of 200 mm (removing the fertile layer).
To choose the right foundation, you need to determine the type of local soil, which can belong to one of three main groups:
- Weak soil consists of peat, silt, silty sand (contains a lot of water), fluid or fluid-plastic clay.
- Heavily soil (subject to seasonal swelling) consists of sand (silty or fine), clay components (clay, loam and sandy loam).
- Slightly heaving soil is formed by rocks, medium and coarse sand grains.
Column (pile) foundation for a bath
They are arranged on slightly heaving soils: it consists of pillars laid in the corners of the bath, as well as at the junction of the internal and external walls. If the distance between two adjacent foundation pillars is more than 2 m, another pillar is laid between them. The depth of laying a columnar foundation is at least 1.5 m.
Pillars for such a foundation are easy to make directly at the construction site of the bath, the material for them can be red brick, rubble stone, connected with concrete mortar. The main (corner) brick pillars for a columnar foundation are usually square in shape, with a side of 380 mm, the auxiliary ones are rectangular, with a section of 380x250 mm. If necessary, the main pillars are made in two bricks - with a section of 510x510 mm. Saving rubble stone and brick during the construction of a columnar foundation is achieved by filling the foundation pits with sand - half their depth, coarse sand is laid in layers (each layer - 100–150 mm), filled with water and rammed.
The foundation pillars when building a bath with your own hands can also be made independently. This will require a demountable formwork made of boards, coated from the inside with non-hardening grease such as "Emulsol". Inside the assembled formwork, you need to place iron reinforcement, then pour the concrete mixture.
For the casting of the foundation pillars inside the holes opened for them, a sliding formwork made of roofing iron, plastic, roofing roofing or thick cardboard is used. From the material selected for the sliding formwork, a pipe with a diameter of 200 mm or more is created, which is placed in a foundation pit of a larger diameter - from 300 mm. The free space around the formwork is filled with sand - it will act as a lubricant and prevent the concrete column from rising when the soil swells. Reinforcement tied with thick wire is inserted inside the formwork, then a concrete mixture is poured, which must be carefully compacted. For the wire handles, previously fixed on the sliding formwork, it is lifted by swinging it by 400 mm, sand is poured on the outside and a new batch of concrete is poured.
Asbestos-cement pipes can be used as a columnar foundation, they are durable, not subject to decay, and their outer surface is sufficiently smooth, which allows them not to change their position when the soil swells. Asbestos-cement pipes are also filled with concrete, their underground part must be coated with mineral-based construction grease to reduce the threat of freezing to the ground.
In the intervals between the foundation pillars of the outer walls of the bath and the inner walls of the steam room, brick walls are laid out, their sufficient thickness is brick and even half a brick. Such brick walls must be buried 250 mm into the ground.
Foundation pillars and brick walls between them are brought out to a height of 300–400 mm from the ground level, they must be leveled with cement mortar and covered with roofing material for waterproofing. In the ends of the pillars, during casting, embedded metal of the required shape is installed - they are intended for fastening the log house of the bath to the foundation.
Strip foundation for a bath
When building a bath on heaving soils, it will be necessary to create a strip monolithic foundation.
Sequence of work:
- Marking the construction site with twine stretched between the pegs.
- Digging a trench of the required depth (its size is related to the characteristics of local soils, not less than 400 mm) and 300 mm wide.
- Adding a layer of sand to the bottom of the trench, then gravel (70–100 mm each).
- Installation of formwork.
- Reinforcement tab.
- Pouring concrete mix.
The reinforcement, laid on the bottom of the foundation trenches, must have a cross section of at least 12 mm, it is laid along each of the two sides of the trench and knitted into a frame, lifting it to the middle with the help of brick fragments.
The composition of the concrete mixture is calculated in a ratio of 5: 3: 1 (crushed stone: sand: cement), the sand used must be dry and clean (washed). Calculating the volume of concrete required for pouring a strip foundation is quite simple, you just need to measure the width, depth and total length of the foundation. For example, with a width of 0.3 m, a depth of 0.4 m and a total length of 22 m, the following volume of concrete mixture will be required:
One of the difficulties in preparing a dry mix of concrete is the lack of weights on construction sites. Therefore, this method of calculating dry components for concrete will come in handy: one 10-liter bucket can hold from 15 to 17 kg of crushed stone, sand - from 14 to 17 kg, cement - from 13 to 14 kg.
The formwork is placed in such a way that the concrete foundation cast into it protrudes 100 mm above the ground level. As the concrete mixture is poured into the prepared formwork, its mass must be repeatedly pierced with a bayonet shovel or wire probe, hit with a hammer on the outer side of the formwork (we eliminate the air sinuses). Then you need to wait for the foundation to completely harden, about 5 to 7 days. When carrying out foundation work in the cold season, after pouring the concrete, the formwork must be covered with PVC film and covered with sawdust or other insulation on top.
After the expiration of the time allotted for drying the cast foundation, we proceed to its waterproofing and lifting with brick rows (if lifting the bath is not required, then after waterproofing we go to the cement screed). You will need the following materials:
- Roofing material.
- A pipe about 2 m (plastic or metal), with a cross section from 32 to 57 mm.
- Masonry mesh.
- Red brick.
- Masonry mortar.
Roofing material (roofing felt) is cut into strips sufficient for laying on a concrete foundation, then laid on top of the foundation on bituminous mastic (for roofing tar mastic). The brick is laid in a single-row method of bandaging: a masonry mortar is laid out on a layer of roofing material, on it - the first brick row "in a poke" (across the foundation axis), then a masonry mesh is laid, the mortar and the next brick row are placed, but already "in a spoon" (along the axis foundation). Each new row of brickwork is accompanied by a laying of masonry mesh, laying "in a spoon" and "in a poke" alternate with each other. In the 3rd or 5th stitch rows of masonry, it is necessary to install ventilation vents from pipe scraps - 5-7 vents are enough for the entire foundation. The number of brick rows depends on the desired foundation height.
The last row of brickwork is covered with a cement screed (the composition of the mortar is sand: cement as 1: 2 or 1: 3), with a 20 mm layer.
Independent heater base and sauna floor
We create the foundation for the stove-heater and assemble the sauna blockhouse. If the main masonry of the heater is supposed, it needs an independent foundation, that is, not connected with the main foundation.
The floor in the bath can be clay, earthen, wood or concrete. By and large, it does not need thermal insulation, since the temperature at its level is practically not higher than 30 ° C. A wooden grate, cork mats or mats are usually laid on the surface of the bath floor - their task is to relieve the visitors of the bath from the sharp feeling of cold caused by touching the floor at the exit from the steam room. For self-drying, the flooring is raised above the level of the main floor.
The main disadvantage of the wooden floor of the bath is its frequent waterlogging - water, penetrating through the cracks between the boards, will accumulate in them, causing rotting and the appearance of an unpleasant odor. The wooden floor covering wears out quickly, acquiring an unsightly appearance; after 6–8 years, it may require replacement. Tile will be more practical for a bath floor covering - it is easier to care for it, it is not susceptible to the effects of moisture easily flowing down its surface.
The floors in the bath rooms must be placed at different levels: the floor of the steam room is 150 mm higher than the floor of the washing room (we keep the heat), the floor of the washing room is 30 mm below the floor in the dressing room (we protect against water ingress).
Since the installation of a concrete floor with ceramic tiles in a washing and steam room is more profitable than a wooden floor, we will consider this option.
There are several ways to arrange a concrete floor in a bath. First of all, we prepare the base for the formation of a warm floor - it consists of a 100 mm layer of sand and 100 mm of a layer of crushed stone of the middle fraction, laid sequentially. Each layer should be well tamped and leveled. Then lay roofing material on top, closing the walls with it to the height of the future floor.
- First option - flooring of a 50 mm layer of felt, expanded clay or slag, on top of a 50 mm layer of concrete with the formation of a slope to the drain hole. After the concrete has set, it must be leveled with a cement mortar, after which you can start tiling.
- Second option - 50 mm cement screed containing perlite (expanded sand). The composition of the mixture: perlite: cement: water as 5: 1: 3. After a full week has passed since the installation of perlite concrete, we apply a 30 mm layer of concrete on top with a slope under the drain. When dealing with perlite, you need to be especially careful - this material is extremely light, even a slight breeze blows it away, so you need to work with it indoors without drafts. Observe the exact proportion of water!
With a significant rise in the basement of the bathhouse above the ground level (from 300 mm), wooden logs of a square section (side 150 mm) will be required for flooring. If the dimensions of the premises of the bath do not exceed 2000x3000 mm, then the logs of the frame will be the supports for the logs. For large sizes, additional supports for floor logs will be required, they are pillars of concrete or brick (250x250 mm) and are placed at a distance of 700-800 mm. The support posts for the lags must be placed on a multi-layer base of sand, crushed stone and concrete - each 100 mm.
Important! Before forming the base for the support of the lag, it is necessary to make the foundation for the stove-heater and build a sewage system.
Wood for logs can be oak, larch or conifers, logs should be treated with tar or antiseptic before installation.
The solution to the flooring in this case is as follows: the concreted space between the foundation is covered with roofing material with an overlap of walls to the floor height, covered with slag or expanded clay (a layer of 200 mm of foam can be laid between the layer of roofing material and bulk insulation), a rough floor of 29 mm is attached to the underside of the logs edged boards. Then a PVC film is laid, foil-clad mineral insulation, again a layer of film - for vapor barrier. On top, pour a 5 mm layer of concrete with a fine filler, create a slope under the drain hole - after 3-4 days we put ceramic tiles.
Do not forget to bring the stove foundation to floor level.
The floor in the dressing room is made of 19-29 mm softwood grooved planks.
An important point: when finishing the clean floor, and indeed the entire steam room and washing room, do not use synthetic building materials - the condition is especially important for the steam room!
Bath sewerage system
To drain waste water from the bath, you will need: a sump with a water seal, a sewage well and pipes that drain dirty water into a sump and then into a sewer.
The pit comes off outside the basement of the bath, from the premises of the steam room and the washing room, gravity pipes made of plastic, cast iron or ceramics are brought into it (metal pipes will quickly rust).
The pit should be 500 mm away from the foundation, its depth is 700 mm, and the cross section is 500x500 mm. The walls of the pit are covered with a 100 mm layer of concrete, a 110 mm drain pipe (pipes) from the bath is inserted into it under the foundation. Main drainage well with a capacity of at least 2 m 3, you need to open it at a distance of at least 2.5 m from the pit - the further, the better. A pipe is brought to it from the pit, laid down a slope at a depth of 1.5 m (below the freezing depth), its outlet from the pit must be located 100 mm from its bottom. After entering the drain pipe, the main drainage well is filled with gravel or sand 1 m from the bottom, and soil is poured over it - with a layer of at least 500 mm. Tamp each layer thoroughly when laying.
Before the outlet of the drain pipe into the pit, a galvanized water seal is installed, located at an obtuse angle to the drain pipe from the bath. Its edges and upper side are hermetically attached to the walls of the pit, the distance from its lower edge to the bottom should be no more than 50 mm - thanks to this design, unpleasant odors and cold air will not penetrate into the steam room (washing room) through the weir opening.
To prevent freezing in winter, the pit must be closed with two covers of the appropriate size (wooden or metal), between them to lay felt, and the top cover must be covered with expanded clay, slag or sawdust on top.
Log house, roof and blind area
It is better to make a log house for a bath to order from professional performers, its manufacture is rather difficult. The disassembled finished log house must be brought to the construction site and assembled according to the numbering of the logs. The crowns are fastened with steel 25 mm spike staples with a total length of up to 150 mm, a tooth length of up to 70 mm.
The roof structure of the bathhouse includes rafters, the crate is attached to them, then the roofing material. The choice of the final roof structure depends on the roof covering with which it will be covered. The rafters are attached to the last crown of the log house (preferably to the penultimate one) with the help of spike staples. As a rule, the construction of baths involves the arrangement of a single or gable roof, the slope angle (from 10 ° to 60 °) of which depends on the abundance and amount of precipitation in a given area. Please note - the steeper the roof, the more material is required to create it.
Angled single-pitch rafters are attached with two external or internal and external supports. If the length of the span of the rafters exceeds 5 m, they are supported with additional struts. The rafters of the gable roof rest on the lower ends on the walls, the upper ends are connected to each other, forming a ridge.
The roof of the bath can be covered with any material (slate, tiles, roofing material, galvanized, etc.), with an overlap of at least 500 mm on the walls.
The attic space must be ventilated, that is, equipped with two doors at opposite ends of the roof.
We carry out a blind area along the perimeter of the foundation: we completely remove the top layer of soil, go deep 200 mm at a distance of 600-800 mm from the basement of the bath, lay a 100 mm layer of gravel (crushed stone, expanded clay) with its subsequent leveling. We lay expansion joints (19 mm board, covered with resin or bitumen, with a step of 2-2.5 m perpendicular to the foundation), fill with a 100 mm layer of concrete. Before the concrete sets, its surface must be ironed - covered with dry cement with a layer of 3-5 mm. After 3 days, the line of contact between the blind area and the basement of the bath must be covered with bitumen to waterproof it.
It is carried out to insulate a log house - to seal the gaps between its logs, linen tow, red moss, hemp hemp, woolen felt are traditionally used for caulking. Natural materials for caulking can be replaced with factory-made materials made from jute and flax fibers: linen and felt - jute and flax. The advantage of factory-made materials for caulking over natural ones is resistance to damage by moth and fungus, and it is easier to work with factory-made material, since it is produced in the form of a continuous tape of a given thickness and width.
The caulking of the log house is performed during its assembly - caulking material is laid between the logs during their laying. After the roof is built, full caulking is performed - from the outside and inside of the log house, after a year - repeated caulking (the log house is upset - the logs dry).
The main tools for caulking are a spatula and a beater, you can make them yourself or purchase ready-made ones. Both of these tools are made from wood (ash, oak or beech). The caulking blade looks like a wedge with a 200 mm long handle and a 100 mm pointed blade, 30 mm thick handle, 65 mm blade width at the base, 30 mm at the end. The wooden mallet has a rounded shape: the handle diameter is 40 mm, its length is 250 mm, the hammer diameter is 70 mm, and the length is 100 mm.
Caulking is done in two ways - "in a set" or "in a stretch". In the second way, we caulk as follows: collect caulking material in a strand, lay it in the gap between the logs and push it in with a spatula, filling the gap completely, without gaps. Then we collect the tow with a roller, apply it to the buried groove, take out small strands of material from it, wrap the roller with them and drive it into the groove using a spatula and a roller - with force, until we are fully confident that the groove (gap) is filled.
The first method of caulking log cabins is designed to cover large grooves (slots). We twist the material for caulking in 2 mm strands, from which we form several loops and drive them into the slot. Loops are collected in a quantity sufficient to completely fill the gap.
- first, the material is hammered along the upper edge of the log and only after - along the bottom;
- We start caulking work from the slots of the lower crown, on both sides of it. Then we move on to the lower rim of the adjacent wall and so on. Having finished caulking the slots of the lower rims, we begin work on the next one in height, moving from this rim to the adjacent one in the nearest wall (from right to left or from left to right, it doesn't matter).
Do not under any circumstances caulk only one wall - it will rise and cause the frame to skew, you will have to disassemble / reassemble it. Let us remind you once again: caulking is carried out in the "bottom-up" direction along the perimeter of the frame.
We put the stove-heater
There are many options for the design of stoves for baths, they can be heated with wood, gas, liquid fuel or use built-in heating elements and be heated by electricity, they can be brick, cast iron or metal. Brick stoves in baths are made with a wall thickness of "half a brick" or "a whole brick", the masonry joints must be tied up especially carefully, striving for their smallest thickness to achieve the highest efficiency of the stove. Only red bricks are used for laying the stoves. The furnace firebox is taken out into the dressing room, its remaining three walls are in the washing (steam room), while the distance from them to the walls of the washing room should be at least 250 mm - in this case, the heat will not go “into the walls”.
For a cast iron or metal furnace, the formation of an independent foundation is not required - only for a brick one.
The heaters, installed for lovers of steam, are equipped with a chamber containing stones of various weights (from 1 to 5 kg). For filling the stove chamber, rubble, pebbles, boulders and granite are suitable. The design of these stoves is extremely simple - similar to stoves, stoves differ from them with a larger pipe or the presence of a chamber with stones.
To obtain the highest temperature in the steam room, cast iron ingots must be added to the stones in a percentage ratio of 80:20 (stones: ingots). For every 1 m 3steam rooms will require at least 6 kg of stones and cast iron ingots.
If a distance of 40–50 mm in the furnace between its walls and the water heating boiler is maintained, the effect of all-round blowing of the boiler with hot gases and the fastest heating of water is achieved.
For better draft, you need to bring the chimney as close to the roof ridge as possible. When passing the chimney through the attic room, be sure to fluff up the chimney 380 mm. Remember that the pipe should not run closer than 150 mm near the roof sheathing and rafters (fire regulations).
Electricity and water supply of the bath
To wash one user of the bath, at least 8 liters of hot water are required. This amount can be provided in several ways: heat a container with water on the stove, use a gas water heater, install an electric heater - boiler. If there is a central water supply, the pipeline to the bath is led from the main house - water from such a pipeline system must be drained in the winter, otherwise it will freeze and burst the pipes.
Water can be taken from a well or well by installing a submersible pump for pumping it and providing such a water supply system with purification filters. And in this case, in winter, the water must either be drained after each use of the bath, or the supply pipes must be insulated.
You need to extend an independent line to the bathhouse to supply electricity and the easiest way is to do it by air (air). For air, you need a special cable - we sweep away the "bare" aluminum immediately, stopping at two options: self-supporting insulated wire (self-supporting insulated wire) and VVGng. The first type of cable is very good, it has a long service life (over 30 years), it is strong and does not need to be supported on a supporting cable. But it is extremely difficult to carry out installation work with it, since it is too thick (the minimum section is 16 mm 2). The aluminum self-supporting insulated wire cannot be pulled through the attic of a bathhouse according to fire safety standards, it is required to fasten it to special anchor clamps - in terms of the amount of costs and hassle with its installation, its cost will be expensive.
A simpler solution is an air duct with a VVGng copper cable fixed to a supporting steel cable. The cable is suspended from a cable on an insulated plastic wire, its service life is up to 10 years, after which it must be replaced (!). For a single-core cable VVGng (of course, there must be two cores - each of them must be in an independent double braid), stretched through the air to the bath, the optimal section will be 2.5 mm 2- it is not known exactly what electrical equipment the owner of the dacha will want to power from him in the future.
All tuso-junction boxes, sockets and switches, electrical panel should be outdoor installation only. According to the fire safety rules, it is prohibited to install junction boxes, switches and sockets in the washing / steam room - only in the dressing room. Do not joke with the possibility of a short circuit in a wooden structure - all the internal wiring of the bath should be made only in a non-combustible corrugated hose, fixed on special clips, the passage of the cable through the partitions - only through a steel pipe.
Try to arrange the cables in the junction box, outlet or lamp so that they go there from the bottom or from the side, but not from the top - a drop of condensation, sliding along the braid, can cause a short circuit.
All electrical appliances must have a moisture resistance class of at least IP44 (better than the maximum - IP54). Install simple fixtures - a metal body, only a glass shade. All connections of the internal cable routing - only on the terminal block, no twists. And install an RCD in the shield, setting it to 30 mA.
For work in the electrical panel and the installation of an RCD, be sure to invite a qualified electrician, if you are not one yourself!
Installation of partitions, ceilings, interior decoration, installation of windows and doors
Internal partitions in the bath can be brick or wooden, followed by heat and moisture insulation in both cases. The partition between the washing room and the dressing room, in which the stove is installed, must be brick, or brick inserts are made in it by laying in one brick - on the sides in contact with the stove body.
Interior decoration is usually performed in cases where the bath itself is built of brick, stone or timber - here the decoration scheme is classic: insulation, vapor barrier film and lining. In addition, when performing external and internal finishing, you will have to rebuild the ventilation system of the bath, because the log logs will be covered with casing and will not be able to carry out full ventilation.
The ceiling is formed in two layers - rough and finishing. The draft ceiling is attached to the horizontal roof joists, if necessary reinforced with intermediate beams. Its area is covered with insulation - expanded clay or slag. From inside the washing / steam room, a heater and a vapor barrier film are attached to the rough ceiling, after which the ceiling is covered with a fine finish - linden, pine grooved board (from 20 mm thick - the thicker the board, the longer it will retain the woody smell).
In the bath, you need to arrange windows of a small size (on average 500x700 mm) and cut them in low - enough so that through them you can look outside the person sitting on the bench. The windows in the bath are always made with double glazing, depending on the size - with a vent or fully hinged - for quick ventilation.
Doors in the premises of the bath must be installed so that they open outward - for reasons of fire safety. The material for the door leaves is a tongue-and-groove board (40-50 mm) or a board with a selected quarter; the boards are fastened with dowels. The size of the flaps must be deliberately reduced by 5 mm - more than is necessary for the actual distance between the quarters of the jambs - otherwise, when the humidity rises, the flap will swell and it will be difficult to open (close) it. The optimal size of the door in the washing section of the bath is 600x1600 mm, in the steam room - 800x1500 mm, with a threshold height of about 300 mm above the floor level (it is inconvenient to walk, but it will keep warm). Hinges for hanging door leaves - brass, going into the dressing room (washing room) and into the washing room (steam room). The door handles are wooden (especially in the steam room).
The material for the shelves is linden, pine, poplar or aspen. The minimum length of the shelves is 1800 mm, the width is 500–800 mm. The distance between the "floors" of two-row shelves must be at least 350 mm, the minimum distance from the second row to the ceiling covering is 1100 mm.
The surface for lying is formed by a board with a width of 80 mm and a thickness of 40 mm; a gap of 15 mm in width is formed between the boards. A distance of 10 mm is maintained from the wall to the shelf. Shelving boards for shelves are attached to a frame made of timber with a section of 50x70 mm in two ways: from above - with the help of nails, the heads of which are sunk into the wood; bottom - with screws. For fastening, nails and screws from stainless steel or copper are chosen.
All corners in the structure of the shelves are rounded, the surfaces are carefully cleaned with zero emery paper.
For greater convenience, the shelves in the steam room are equipped with a headboard: the height at the beginning of the rise is 30 mm, the length of the headboard is 460 mm, the final maximum height is 190 mm.
When choosing a material for creating shelves, be careful - it is believed that knotty areas are more dense and can lead to skin burns. Therefore, try to pick up boards and beams without knotty areas at all or with a minimum number of them.
Fire fighting measures
Protect the bathhouse from the threat of fire - lay a steel sheet in front of the furnace firebox, make sure that the oven doors are securely fastened, install fire extinguishing equipment nearby (a container with water, sand and fire extinguishers). Make sure you can freely open the steam room and washroom doors when firing up the sauna. Do not block passages, the space in front of doors and windows.
How to build a bathhouse yourself in the country.
Sometimes you really want to leave the hustle and bustle of the city, and go to the country. Silence, walking, doing what you love - what could be better! If comfort is provided at the dacha, you want to come again and again. One of the most comfortable living conditions in the country is a bathhouse.
Construction can, of course, be entrusted to professional builders. However, it is quite possible to build and equip a bathhouse at a summer cottage on its own. This saves you from additional expenses and allows you to carry out finishing and improvement in full accordance with your desires and preferences. Therefore, this task is not easy, but it is quite within the power of a novice builder. The bathhouse built with his own hands will delight the owners even more. So, how can you build a bath yourself?
Firstly, as with any construction, you first need to decide on the project and on the materials from which the bath will be built. The choice of the main material for construction depends on the geographical location and operating conditions, as well as on its own capabilities.
Baths are made of bricks, aerated concrete and other stone materials, some prefer frame baths, however, many novice builders prefer to build a bath from wood. This lightweight and durable material does not require the construction of a serious and expensive foundation, but it has excellent characteristics. With proper care, the bath will not be a hassle to operate.
And of course, preference should be given to a bar - a bath made of this material will retain all the advantages of a wooden structure and save you from problems and additional costs that may arise when building walls from logs. Erection of walls from a bar is similar to working with a designer - it can have different geometric dimensions and sections (rectangle, square, semicircular), and also, in the case of a profiled bar, there are grooves for fastening. Building from a bar is easy and convenient - what could be better for a novice builder!
How to choose a place to build a bath.
One of the most important points is the choice of the location of the future building. The site must comply with both existing legislation and ease of use. When choosing, basic recommendations can help:
- if there is a reservoir nearby - do not place the bath too close to it, as the building will be threatened by flooding;
- it is necessary to decide how the bathhouse will be located relative to the house: a separate building or will be attached to it, since each option has its positive and negative sides;
- it is believed that it is better to build a bath in the backyard, in relative seclusion;
- it is imperative to provide for mandatory ventilation during construction, as well as provide for wastewater disposal;
- it is highly discouraged to determine the location next to a nearby road;
- when placing a building, it is necessary to take into account the cardinal points and the direction of the wind: the best place is the southern part of the site, protected from the wind, so that it does not interfere with the rest, it is better to have windows with an exit to the west;
- it is desirable that the bath be located at some distance from other buildings, and if it is an extension to the house, it is imperative to observe fire safety rules during construction, as, incidentally, when erecting a detached building;
- when determining the location of the bath and its size, it is necessary to observe the distance from the boundaries of the site established by the rules so that the neighbors do not experience discomfort in the future and do not make claims to the owner;
- it is recommended to keep the distance to the water intake (well or well) - no more than 20 meters.
Bath layout: recommendations.
At the beginning of construction, it is highly desirable to make a project, which should, among other things, determine the optimal construction area.
It is believed that the estimated area for 1 person should be approximately 5 sq. M. Thus, if the expected number of visitors to the bath is 4 people, its total area should not be less than 20 sq. M.
The minimum composition of the premises is as follows: a steam room, a washing room, a rest room and a dressing room. It is important to determine the most convenient location of these rooms relative to each other, as well as their geometric dimensions.
First you need to complete several diagrams and drawings:
- general plan of the structure; - drawings of each room separately; - diagram of the foundation arrangement; - diagram of the roof arrangement; - plan for fixing and laying out the timber; - plan for the arrangement of the floor and ceiling of the bath; - installation diagram of the furnace, taking into account its structural features.
All the necessary drawings can be done independently, as well as found in many open sources. As a rule, timber baths have similar designs and you can easily choose the most suitable one. If you wish and have the necessary budget, you can order the design to a professional architect or builder.
The choice of building materials.
Below is a list of materials that will be needed to build a bath from a bar:
a) a bar of 150x150 mm, although it is possible to use a bar with a section of 100 mm or 200 mm;
b) floorboard (an edged board 150x50 mm 4 meters long is excellent);
c) hardwood boards for the ceiling (usually lining with a width of 100 mm and a thickness of 20 mm or more is used);
d) material for wall decoration (as a rule, the same lining is used);
e) material for vapor barrier (an excellent option would be to use a vapor barrier film);
f) waterproofing (it is advisable to use penofol, although plastic film is suitable);
g) ceiling insulation (a good option is mineral wool materials);
h) sheet asbestos for insulation of wooden structures from temperature effects, including for walls near the stove and elements located next to the chimney;
i) cement, sand and crushed stone for the foundation (recommendation - cement should be purchased before starting construction);
j) roofing material for the roof, which can be selected based on personal preferences and, most importantly, that it fits organically into the surrounding roofs of other buildings;
l) insulation for the mezhventsovo space (it is better to use jute, although moss or tow are perfect).
The best time to start construction is in spring, since after the completion of the main construction work, it is necessary for the timber to dry out and shrink. This requires at least 6 months.
Do-it-yourself bath - step by step instructions.
Step I - preparation of the site for construction.
Before starting construction, it is necessary to clear the site - remove shrubs, stumps, remove debris and everything that will interfere with the work on the foundation.
Step II - building the foundation.
It is best to build a bath from a bar on a columnar foundation, which is inexpensive and great for the construction of small wooden and frame buildings.
When constructing it, you first need to dig the estimated number of holes for the installation of supports. Their number is calculated as follows - the supports must be installed in the corners of the building and at the intersection of the walls, as well as with a certain step along their perimeter.
The step is chosen taking into account the type of soil and the estimated total weight of the structure. The depth of the holes should be 1-1.5 meters, although depending on the depth of freezing of the soil in a given area, it can change. To complete this type of foundation, in addition to the materials listed above, asbestos-cement pipes and fittings will be required.
At the bottom of the pit, it is necessary to fill in a mixture of sand and crushed stone 10-15 cm thick. Then install an asbestos-cement pipe of the required length in it, strictly vertically, and fix it. Several reinforcement bars should be placed inside the pipe.
After that, pour concrete mortar into the pipe and into the free space between the walls of the pit and the pipe.
After pouring the solution, you need to wait a few days, then lay out a half-brick wall between the posts.
Step III - erection of walls and roofing.
The traditional material for the construction of bath walls is a bar of 150x150 mm in size. Before laying the first crown, it is imperative to put waterproofing on the foundation. The lower part of the crown must be treated with an antiseptic. Most often, the timber is laid out in the "paw" method.
The first crown must be carefully aligned geometrically - all angles must be exactly 90 degrees. After the first crown has been erected, they begin to lay the beams for the set of walls. When laying out the walls, you need to make openings for future doors and windows and be sure to insulate each row with the selected thermal insulation material.
To connect the crowns, pins are used - metal or wooden pins.
After the walls are removed, the roof is installed. Depending on the selected roof shape, it is necessary to fix the rafters, which are attached to the upper rim with brackets.
When constructing a single-pitched sloped roof, the rafters are fixed either with two external, or one external and one internal support. When erecting a gable roof, it is necessary to reliably support the rafters from the bottom on the wall, and connect them together from above to form a roofing ridge.
Sheathing boards are attached to the fixed rafters, then hydro and vapor barrier, insulation are placed on them.
The installation of the roof is completed by the installation of the selected roofing material.
Step IV - interior finishing work.
Interior finishing should be started with a communications device - sewerage, water supply, electricity. You should worry about the sewage system even during the design and construction of the foundation.
It is necessary to dig a drainage well next to the future bath, into which a sewer pipe buried in the ground with a slope enters for draining out of the washing department.
After the installation of the sewage system, a clean floor is made, which is made of wood or concrete. The concrete floor is more durable, most often it is tiled with tiles or porcelain stoneware.
If a wooden floor is chosen for interior decoration, it is usually made leaky. To do this, floor boards are nailed to the installed logs with a small gap, or a small drain hole is installed in the floor, closed with a grate.
In this case, the floor must be made with a slight slope towards the drain. Then the water that has entered the drain will be discharged through the sewer pipe into the drainage well.
After the installation of the sewage system, it is necessary to carry out insulation, waterproofing and vapor barrier of the walls and ceiling with the help of appropriate materials, conduct electricity and water supply.
After installing windows and doors, then finishing the room using, for example, lining.
After finishing the finishing, you need to install the necessary electrical appliances.
Step V - installing the oven and shelves.
There are a great many options for placing shelves, you just need to comply with the recommended sizes and the fact that they should be made of hardwood. The installation principle is simple - a stable frame is mounted, usually from a bar, and boards are attached to it.
The oven must be installed in full compliance with fire safety requirements. Wooden structures must be insulated from the high temperatures of the operating stove and chimney. In the case of a large furnace weight, its installation must be carried out on a specially equipped foundation. This is determined on a case-by-case basis, depending on the selected oven.
The stove is chosen according to the preferences of the owner. It can be a traditional wood-burning stove, a metal wood-burning stove or an electric stove, sometimes it is advisable to choose a gas stove for a bath.
For more information about choosing a stove for a bath, read our special article "How to choose the right stove for a bath".
Step VI - choosing accessories
There are many bath accessories.
The main ones are:
- brooms (oak, birch and others); - containers (buckets, basins); - wooden ladle for adding water; - wooden grates on the floor and much more.
Additional individuality can be added by the interior decoration of the premises, which remains at the discretion of the owner - here, depending on desires and financial capabilities, you can give free rein to your imagination.
It should be added that all the listed accessories can be made by yourself. The bathhouse is a great place to spend time in a pleasant, friendly company or with your family. It will be much more pleasant to realize that all this is done with your own hands, including useful and necessary devices: for example, hangers, lamps or ventilation grilles.
Enjoy Your Bath!
Video about building a bath yourself.
Almost everyone dreams of their own bath. It's nice to be able to warm up in the steam room at any time, drink tea on the terrace and enjoy the silence. A visit to the bath is good for health, it cleanses the body, relieves stress and improves mood. In the bath you can relax both body and soul.
It is especially pleasant to go to a bathhouse built by your own hands. To build it, you need to know the procedure for building a bath, draw up a budget and choose a material.
What material to build a bathhouse at home yourself?
Currently, the choice of materials for building a bath is quite diverse, so anyone can choose an option to their liking. Usually the bath is built of wood, aerated concrete or brick.
Bath made of wood
The wooden bathhouse is a classic; it was from this material that our ancestors built the bathhouse. The wood is natural and environmentally friendly, it has low thermal conductivity and an attractive appearance. A wooden bathhouse does not need additional finishing.
Most people build a bathhouse from this material because of the special atmosphere that only wood can create: a pleasant aroma, a cozy atmosphere, unity with nature - it is pleasant and comfortable in such a bath.
Wood buildings are also divided into several types, depending on the material from which they are built.
A log bath is the most popular option, which has many advantages. The bar has low thermal conductivity, it has a neat and attractive appearance. A timber bath has minimal shrinkage (less than 10 cm), it is quite easy to build, and its low weight eliminates the need to make a complex foundation.
A log bath is also in demand, but its construction is much more difficult, so this option is only suitable if you are confident in your abilities. It is important that the material is of high quality, straight, without bends.
Any signs of decay, even the slightest, blue spots - this is a reason to immediately refuse to buy the material.
A bath made of rounded logs outwardly surpasses a construction from a bar, but if you look from the point of view of practicality, then a bar is considered a more attractive option: a higher level of thermal insulation, no need to caulk the cracks, construction is cheaper.
If you want to build a solid and reliable wooden bath, but are afraid of deformation that may appear during the drying process, then pay attention to the bath from the gun carriage. It has all the advantages inherent in any wooden buildings: environmental friendliness, aesthetics, savings on interior and exterior decoration. The disadvantage is that it is more difficult to build than a bath from a bar. The reason lies precisely in the lock connection, which provides increased structural strength.
A simple and budget option is a frame bath. The construction of such a bath is within the power of even those who do not have sufficient experience in construction. The construction of a bath will be cheap, since there is no shrinkage, the interior decoration can be done immediately. But the frame structure has a low level of vapor barrier, so special work must be carried out to protect the walls from moisture.
Aerated concrete bath
Aerated concrete is a durable and fire-resistant material. It has low thermal conductivity and good moisture resistance. The disadvantage of aerated concrete bath is its appearance; it needs additional finishing, which entails additional financial costs. But if we compare in cost, aerated concrete is cheaper than wood, therefore, in terms of price, these buildings will be almost equal.
Foam block bath
The foam block and the gas block are materials similar in structure, but the main advantage of the foam block is less hygroscopicity, which makes the construction of a foam block bath simpler, and the construction itself more reliable.
In addition, the cost of a foam block is 20% or less than that of a gas block, but it is inferior in strength. Often, builders combine two materials and erect load-bearing walls from aerated concrete blocks, and partitions from foam blocks.
Bath from expanded clay blocks
If we compare a bath made of expanded clay concrete blocks and cinder blocks, then the first one wins in terms of strength and durability. But expanded clay concrete will cost much more than a cinder block.
Expanded clay concrete is inferior to foam concrete in terms of frost resistance, but its water absorption is slightly lower - 14%, while for a foam block this figure reaches 18%.
Cinder block bath
The main advantage of cinder blocks is the price, it is lower than for other types of blocks. This is due to the fact that this material is made from waste, just keep in mind that they are not always environmentally friendly.
A cinder block bath is more economical, but it has lower heat and sound insulation. Moreover, if we compare materials in terms of strength, then the cinder block is closer in this indicator to a brick.
The disadvantage of the cinder block is an unpresentable appearance, so you need to do an external finish. But this cannot be called a serious disadvantage, since those who choose one of the types of blocks for the construction of a bathhouse then cover them with siding, block-house and other materials.
Bath made of gas silicate blocks
Gas silicate blocks are a durable material for building a bath, which does not crack and retains heat well.
The price for gas silicate blocks is higher than for foam concrete. At the same time, a gas silicate block bath is more durable, and the construction process takes less time.
Gas silicate blocks are superior to aerated concrete blocks in all respects, except for one - moisture capacity.
Bath made of bricks
Brick structures are reliable and strong, it is also important that buildings made of this material do not ignite. Brick is great for building a bath house. But the process of building a brick bath itself is much more complicated than from other materials, and also takes more time. Therefore, if you have no experience in using this material, it is better to choose materials that are easier to install - timber, gas blocks.
Of course, you can build a bathhouse from scrap materials, for example, clay pen, dead wood, adobe, etc. Such buildings will be as cheap and compact as possible. But most people prefer to build a bath from more traditional materials.
How to build a bath with your own hands? Stages of building a bath
The construction process includes a number of stages.
Step 1. Choosing a location
Choose a building site carefully. It is recommended to avoid slopes and dampness, since in this case it will be necessary to make a reinforced foundation. If there is a body of water nearby, then it is better to make a bath next to it, in this case, after you warm up in the steam room, you can cool off in the refreshing water.
To build a bath, you need to choose a flat surface, it is recommended to enter the bath from the south, so you can avoid a large accumulation of snow in front of the door.
Step 2. Drawing up the project
You can make a bath plan yourself, find a ready-made version or order a drawing. Projects of small baths can be taken ready-made, they are quite simple, and if changes need to be made, it will be quite simple to do this.
If you are planning a complex building with a large number of rooms and several floors, then it is better to choose a ready-made project or order from specialists. The advantage of the latter option is that in this case all the features of your site, as well as personal wishes and preferences, will be taken into account, the project will be drawn up for you. But drawing development is a paid service.
An incorrectly drawn up drawing will entail additional costs and difficulties in the construction process, so pay special attention to drawing up a project.
The drawing should be as detailed as possible: you need to indicate the dimensions of all rooms, designate partitions, indicate where the doors, windows, stove, shelves and furniture will be located. At the design stage, you should also think about the water supply system, wiring, etc. The more detailed the project, the better.
Simple projects can only contain basic rooms (break room, steam room and washroom). It is better if a dressing room is provided in the bath, it will protect the room from the cold from the street, and can also be used to store logs.
Baths are one-, two-story and with an attic. The project can provide a balcony, terrace, pool and other amenities. It all depends on your wishes, the size of the site and the budget.
The most popular is the 6x4 bath project. The building turns out to be quite compact, so it can fit even in small areas, while the size of the bath gives ample room for planning. Projects of 6 by 4 baths are very different: they can provide for a large steam room and a washing room, several lounges, a bathroom, a terrace and even a mini-kitchen.
4x4 and 6x6 projects are also in high demand. Square buildings, they will also fit in the middle areas. Baths of this size will fit all the main rooms and a couple of additional ones.
For small areas, 3x3 and 3x4 bath projects are often chosen. Of course, there are fewer opportunities for changing the layout, but it is quite possible to get a compact and comfortable building in operation. In such a bath, only two rooms are made: a steam room, combined with a washing room, and a rest room, which plays the role of a dressing room.
For permanent use by a large company, such a bath, of course, is not suitable. But as a summer cottage option for one or two people, it will be an excellent alternative.
If, on the contrary, you have a large and spacious plot, as well as a good budget, then pay attention to large bath projects: 8x8, 9x9, 10x10, etc.
In such buildings, three rooms are not limited and additional ones are made: a kitchen, a bedroom, a vestibule, a bathroom, a gym, a billiard room, etc. If you relax in a bathhouse mainly in summer, then choose a project with a spacious terrace, then you can place a stove on it and cook outdoor barbecue. The spacious sauna can easily fit the pool. It can be placed in a separate room or on the terrace. Such a bath is perfect for relaxing with a large company or with the whole family.
You can get a more spacious bath in a smaller area if you prefer a corner bath. Its design allows you to place the premises as efficiently as possible, even in a small area. Such baths can be very different in size and shape, so anyone can create an ideal project for themselves. By the way, the corner bath is convenient because, with this layout, the stove is located in a corner room, so there is enough heating for other rooms.
When composing a project, almost everyone prefers a bath with a terrace. And this is not surprising! Such a detail significantly improves the quality of rest in summer weather. Of course, it is more pleasant to relax in nature, breathing fresh air and drinking aromatic tea, rather than huddle in a stuffy room.
The project of a bathhouse with a pool will be relevant if there is no reservoir nearby, but there is a strong desire to cool off in cool water after warming up in the steam room. And do not think that a swimming pool in a bath is a luxury. At the moment there are ready-made pool bowls made of different materials, so if a small pool is enough for you to plunge, then you can make one cheap enough.
As you can see, the choice of projects is huge. We have listed just a few of them. When determining the size of the future bath, you need to take into account the number of people who will go to the bath, and it is better to immediately provide for a reserve, since you are unlikely to build a bath for one or two years, and over many years the composition of the company may increase. In addition, you need to take into account the budget: it is obvious that the larger the building, the more expensive it will be to build.
If you are going to build a wooden bath, we also recommend paying attention to the length of the timber. For example, the maximum length of a profiled bar is 6 m, therefore, it is obvious that it is better to choose a 6x6 m project, and not 7x7 m.There are many nuances and it is better to take them into account at the stage of drawing up a project, since it is easier to make edits to the drawing, than in the already begun construction.
Step 3. Laying the foundation
The construction of a building begins with the construction of the foundation. It is important that the foundation can support the weight of the building, so the foundation must be strong and reliable. Its depth depends on the level of freezing of the ground.
There are different types of foundations, but when building a bath, a columnar or strip foundation is most often made.
The strip foundation is more reliable, therefore it is suitable for the construction of baths that are heavy: brick, aerated concrete, two-story, etc. If you are going to build a small one-story bath, then you can limit yourself to a columnar foundation, it is easier and cheaper to build it.
The strip foundation is able to withstand high loads, therefore it is chosen when building two-story baths. But the construction of this base will cost more than a columnar one, since more material will be required. An important advantage of strip foundations is the ability to make a warm basement or basement.
For wooden baths, a shallow type of strip foundation is suitable, for block or brick - a deep one.
If you are going to build a bathhouse on the ground with a weak bearing capacity, then you will have to abandon the strip foundation and choose a different type of foundation.
A columnar foundation is a simpler and cheaper option that is suitable for any type of soil. It is quite simple to make such a base, so it will be a good solution for small buildings. The foundation supports can be of different materials: brick, concrete, iron, etc.
If you plan to make a columnar foundation, it is recommended to install a grillage - this will give the structure additional strength.
But sometimes it happens that the bathhouse has to be built on an uneven surface, in particular, this happens if you want to build a building next to the river. In this case, you need to make a pile foundation. This base option will also be indispensable when building a bath in permafrost regions. A pile foundation will cost about 40% cheaper than a strip foundation, which is a significant savings in construction. But during its construction, additional costs arise associated with the need to use special equipment.
Any of these types of bases can be done independently, without contacting specialists. In the articles presented on this site, you will find detailed instructions for installing the foundation with your own hands.
Before making the foundation, you need to prepare the site, namely, make a markup. Make sure that the markings are as even as possible - this will determine how smooth the bath will turn out.
Step 4. Erection of walls
As already mentioned, for the construction of a bath, you can choose different materials: timber, aerated concrete, expanded clay concrete, brick, log, etc. Whatever material you choose, it is also important to ensure that the walls of the bath are as flat as possible.
When building a wooden bathhouse, it is better to choose larger logs for the lower rims than for other rows.
When choosing materials, you need to be more careful, it is important to purchase only high-quality ones, otherwise the building will quickly deform. If you come across defective materials, then you need to be from their use, otherwise the service life of the building will be significantly reduced.
It is necessary to buy materials for the construction of a bath with a margin, it is highly likely that there will be defects in the materials. In addition, if there are not enough of them, then you will have to go and buy new ones, and this will slow down the work process.
In advance, you need to decide on the location of windows and doors and when laying the walls, do not forget to leave gaps under them.
Step 5. Roof installation
To install the roof, you need to make a rafter system - a frame made of wooden beams. After that, you should mount the rafters from the beams, sheathe the roof with roofing material and insulate it. For installing the roof, you need to use wood species that do not give a lot of resin, so it is better to choose hardwood.
Roofing material can be anything, but metal tiles are considered the most popular.
Step 6. Internal and external decoration of the bath, furniture arrangement
The interior decoration of the bath is carried out most often using lining. This material has excellent performance properties and an affordable price. For finishing the steam room, a lining made of deciduous trees is suitable, and for other rooms you can use coniferous wood.
Conifers contain a resin that is released at high temperatures. If you make the finishing of the steam room from such a material, then the resin can lead to poisoning, and if it comes into contact with the skin, it will burn.
The strictest rules for the design of a steam bath. The choice of furniture is limited here, as well as finishing materials. The steam room should have a stove and shelves, nothing else. The shelves can be arranged in one row, two or three, depending on the height of the ceiling. As already mentioned, conifers cannot be used in decoration and furniture in a steam room, so choose deciduous ones.
Various decorative elements in the steam room will be appropriate only in limited quantities. For example, the walls can be decorated with the same clapboard by cutting it into pieces and collecting some figure from them.
Himalayan salt can be an additional decoration that will also make the trip to the steam room even more rewarding. It has a beneficial effect on the body, while on the walls it looks original and effective. And if you add additional lighting, the steam room will immediately change.
The design of a washing room in a bathhouse also has certain limitations caused by its functional purpose. Since the washing room is needed in order to wash after the steam room, it should have either a shower cabin, or basins, tubs and a bench. If space and budget permit, some also install a hot tub and pool.
Here, in addition to lining, you can also use tiles for wall decoration. If you put it on the floor, then choose a non-slip, otherwise you can easily get injured. Natural and artificial stone, PVC panels, etc. are suitable for decoration.
The relaxation room in the bath is the room where the rules for decoration are the least. As for the compulsory furniture, only the table and chairs belong to it, the rest is at your discretion. For example, if the rest room plays the role of a dressing room, then hangers and shelves for shoes will also come in handy.
If you plan to stay in the room with an overnight stay, then you can put a folding sofa or even a bed, if the area of the room allows. In the spacious recreation room, some make a kitchenette, put a billiard table, and decorate a children's corner.
For decoration, you can use different materials: lining, stone, drywall, wallpaper, etc. It is recommended to decorate the room with paintings, various figures and other decorative elements.
External finishing does not always need to be done. Usually they resort to it if blocks were used to build a bath. If it is wood or brick, then there is no need for external decoration, the building looks neat and well-groomed even without it.
You can build a bathhouse yourself, but you need to do everything carefully and consistently: draw up a plan, purchase high-quality materials, follow the order of the construction stages. Of course, you can order the construction of a bathhouse or even buy a ready-made one, but, of course, bath procedures will be more pleasant in a bathhouse made by yourself.
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